Institutionen för astronomi Lunds universitet NEW BOOKS IN THE LIBRARY JUNE-JULY 2007 Active OB-stars : laboratories for stellar and circumstellar physics/ edited by STEFL , Stanislav and Owocki, Stanley P. ; 2007 ; Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conf. Series Vol. 361 ; San Francisco AGN variability from X-rays to radio waves/ edited by GASKELL , C. Martin and McHardy, Ian M
Nitrite: - Intended to identify nitrite in urine. Nitrite identification is used in the diagnosis and treatment of
urinary tract infections of bacterial origin. The color test is based on the principle of the Griess reaction. Any For In-Vitro Diagnostic Use
degree of pinkorange coloration should be interpreted as a positive nitrite test suggestive of ≥105 organisms/ ml urine. Negative results do not exclude significant bacteriuria (insufficient incubation, urinary tract infections Urine Test Strips for the Rapid Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Bilirubin, Blood, Glucose, Ketones, Leucocytes, due to bacteria not containing nitrate reductase). Before testing the patient should ingest vegetable-rich Nitrite, pH-value, Protein, Specific Gravity and Urobilinogen. Refer to the carton and label for specific parameter meals, reduce fluid intake and discontinue antibiotic and vitamin C therapy 3 days prior to the test. False combination on the product you are using.
positive results may occur in stale urines, in which nitrite has been formed by contamination of the specimen Intended Use
and in urines containing dyes (derivatives of pyridinium, beetroot). A negative result even in the presence For use as a preliminary screening test for diabetes, liver diseases, haemolytic diseases, urogenital and kidney of bacteriuria can have the following reasons: bacteria not containing nitrate reductase, diet with low nitrate disorders and metabolic abnormalities.
content, high diuresis, high content of ascorbic acid or insufficient incubation of the urine in the bladder. Red or Procedure and Notes
blue borders or edges which may be present must not be interpreted as a positive result. Values of 0.05 – 0.1 mg/dl (6.5 – 13 µmol/l) Nitrite are indicated.
• Use only well mixed, non-centrifuged urine, which should not be older than 4 hours. First morning urine is pH: - Intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used to evaluate the acidity or alkalinity of
recommended. Protect the samples from light.
urine as it relates to numerous renal and metabolic disorders and in the monitoring of patients with certain diets. • If the samples cannot be tested immediately, they should be stored at 2.4°C and brought to room Persisting high pH-values indicate urinary tract infections. The test paper contains indicators which clearly temperature (15.25°C) before testing.
change color between pH 5 and pH 9 (from orange to green to turquoise). The pH value of fresh urine of • Collect specimen in clean, well rinsed containers, free of detergents. Do not add any preservatives.
healthy people varies between pH 5 and pH 6. Bacterial contamination may lead to false results. Red borders • Do not touch test areas of the reagent strip.
which may be present in neighbourhood to the nitrite field must not be taken into consideration The color fields • Immediately after removing the required number of strips, close the container securely using the original cap.
correspond to the following pH values: 5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 9.
• Immerse the test strip in the urine (approx. 2 sec), so that all reagent areas are covered. Remove excess Protein: - Intended to identify proteins in urine. Identification of urinary protein is used in the diagnosis
urine from the strip by wiping the edge of the strip on the urine container or on absorbent paper.
and treatment of renal diseases. The test is based on the „protein error“ principle of the indicator. The test is • To prevent interaction from adjacent test areas, hold the strip in a horizontal position during incubation.
especially sensitive in the presence of albumin. Other proteins are indicated with less sensitivity. Normally, • Compare the reagent areas on the strip with the corresponding color chart on the container 60 seconds no protein is detectable in the urine of healthy subjects. Falsely positive results are possible in highly alkaline (60 – 120 seconds for leucocytes) after immersion. Coloration only on the rim of the test pad or after more urine samples (pH > 9) and in the presence of high specific gravity, after infusions with polyvinylpyrrolidone than 2 minutes after immersion is without meaning and should not be used for interpretation.
(blood substitute), after intake of medicaments containing quinine and also by disinfectant residues containing • Visual evaluation should be carried out in diffuse daylight.
quaternary ammonium groups in the urine sampling vessel. The color fields correspond to the following ranges Clinical Utility, Test Principles, Expected Values, Limitations
of albumin concentrations: negative, 15 (trace), 30, 100 and 500 mg/dl or negative, 0.15 (trace), 0.3, 1.0 and Ascorbic Acid: - Intended to measure the level of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in urine. Ascorbic acid in higher
5.0 g/l. Values of approx. 15 mg/dl Albumine are indicated.
quantities may cause interferences especially with the glucose test. The detection is based on the decoloration Specific Gravity / Density: - Intended to provide an estimation of renal ability of urine concentration or
of Tillmans reagent. In the presence of ascorbic acid a color change takes place from grey blue to orange. As urine dilution. The specific gravity of urine varies in accordance with the drinking quantity as well as different ascorbic acid already in low concentrations can disturb various test fields, especially the glucose assay in low disorders. A highly diluted urine e.g., a SG of approx. 1.000 can indicate a failure of the renal concentration concentrations, the test must be repeated if the ascorbic acid reaction is positive, however, at the earliest 10 ability. In addition, the determination of specific gravity is also important indicator for a manipulation (e.g., urine hours after the last vitamin C intake (medication, fruit, vegetables). Values of 5 – 10 mg/dl or 0,6 – 1,1 mmol/l dilution of sample) at the screening for drug abuse. The test is based on a color change of the reagent from blue green to greenish yellow depending on the concentration of ions in the urine. The test permits the determination Bilirubin: - Intended to measure the levels of bilirubin conjugates in urine. Measurements of urinary bilirubin
of urine density between 1.000 and 1.030. The normal value varies between 1.015 – 1.025. The color scale has and its conjugates are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver and bile diseases. A red azo been optimized at a pH of the urine of 6. Highly alkaline (pH > 8) urines lead to slightly low results, highly acid compound is obtained in the presence of acid by coupling of bilirubin with a diazonium salt. Normally, no (pH < 6) urines may cause slightly higher results. Glucose and urea do not interfere. The color fields correspond bilirubin is detectable in urine. Concentrations of 0,5 mg/dl and more lead to a color of red-orange peach and to the values of 1.000, 1.005, 1.010, 1.015, 1.020, 1.025, 1.030.
indicate the early stage of a liver disease. The reaction is unaffected by pH of urine. False low or negative Urobilinogen: - Intended to detect and estimate urobilinogen (a bile pigment degradation product of red
results may be simulated by large amounts of vitamin C or Nitrite or by longer exposure of the sample to direct cell hemoglobin) in urine. Estimations obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of light. Increased concentrations of urobilinogen can reinforce the sensitivity of the test field. Different urine liver diseases and hemolytic (red cells) disorders. The test is based on the coupling of urobilinogen with a contents (e.g. urine indicane) can lead to atypical coloration. For metabolites of drugs see urobilinogen. The stabilised diazonium salt to a red azo compound. The normal concentration of urobilinogen in urine goes from color fields correspond to the following values: 0 (negative), 1 (+), 2 (++), 4 (+++) mg/dl or 0 (negative), 17 (+), 0.1 – 1.8 mg/dl (1.7 – 30 µmol/l). Concentrations of > 2.0 mg/dl (35 µmol/l) are considered to be pathological. 35 (++), 70 (+++) µmol/l. Values of 0.5 – 1 mg/dl (8.5 – 17 µmol/l) Bilirubin are indicated.
The reaction is unaffected by pH of urine. Higher concentrations of formaldehyde or exposure of the urine to light for a longer period of time may lead to lowered or falsely negative results. Beetroot or metabolites of Blood: - Intended to detect occult blood in urine. Occult blood indicates serious urological or kidney diseases.
drugs which give a color at low pH (phenazopyridine, azo dyes, p-aminobenzoic acid) may cause false positive Microhaematuria does not affect the colour of urine and is only detectable by microscopic or chemical tests. results. The color fields correspond to the following urobilinogen concentrations: norm. (normal), 2, 4, 8, 12 mg/ The detection is based on the pseudoperoxidative activity of hemoglobin and myoglobin, which catalyze the dl or norm. (normal), 35, 70, 140, 200 µmol/l.
oxidation of an indicator by an organic hydroperoxide and a chromogene producing a green color. Whereas intact erythrocytes are reported by punctual colorations on the test pad, haemoglobin and myoglobin are Reagent Composition in the Tests
reported by a homogeneous green coloration. The influence of ascorbic acid has been largely eliminated. Ascorbic acid: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol 0.7% From a level at approx. 25 Ery/µl and above, even at high concentrations of ascorbic acid normally no negative results are observed. Falsely positive reactions can also be produced by a residue of peroxide containing Blood: tetramethylbenzidine-dihydrochloride 2.0%, isopropylbenzol-hydroperoxide 21.0% cleansing agents, activities of microbial oxidase due to infections of the urogenital tract or by formaline. The Glucose: glucose oxidase 2.1%; peroxidase 0.9%; o-tolidine-hydrochloride 5.0% significance of a positive result varies from patient to patient. For establishing an individual diagnosis, it is therefore indispensable to take into consideration also the clinical manifestations. The number of erythrocytes Leucocytes: carboxylic acid ester 0.4%; diazonium salt 0.2% which are detected by sediment analysis may be lower than the result of the test strip, because lysed cells are Nitrite: tetrahydrobenzo[h]quinolin-3-ol 1.5%; sulfanilic acid 1.9% not detected by sediment analysis. The color fields correspond to the following values: 0 (negative), approx. pH: methyl red 2.0%; bromothymol blue 10.0% 5 – 10, approx. 50, approx. 300 Ery/µl. Values of approx. 5 Erythrocytes/µl are indicated.
Glucose: - Intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in urine). Urinary glucose measurements are used in the
diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia. The detection is based on the glucoseoxidase-peroxidase-chromogen reaction. Apart from glucose, no other compound in urine is known to give a positive reaction. Normally, glucose cannot be detected in the urine Storage and Stability
although small amounts are secreted also by the healthy kidney. Changes in the coloration less than 50 mg/ Keep diagnostic test strips protected from direct sunlight and humidity. Store the tubes in a cool and dry place dl (2.8 mmol/l) are to be considered normal. High concentrations of ascorbic acid in urines with a low glucose (storage temperature 2.30°C). Under proper conditions test strips are stable up to the stated expiry date.
concentration (up to 250 mg/dl) may inhibit the reaction and lead to lower or false negative results. Repeat the test one day after stopping the intake of vitamin C. Pay attention to the ascorbic acid field. In addition • In order to establish a final diagnosis and prescribe an appropriate therapy, the results obtained with test an inhibitory effect is produced by gentisic acid, a pH value of <5 and high specific gravity. False positive strips should be verified with other medical results.
reactions can also be produced by a residue of peroxide containing cleansing agents or others. The color fields • The effect of medicaments or their metabolic products on the test is not known in all cases. In case of doubt correspond to the following ranges of glucose concentrations: normal, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/dl or it is recommended not to take the medicaments and then repeat the test. However, stopping taking the drugs normal, 2.8, 5.6, 14, 28 and 56 mmol/l. Values of 40 mg/dl (2.2 mmol/l) glucose are indicated.
should only be done after respective instruction of the doctor.
Ketones: - Intended to detect ketones in urine. Identification of ketones is used in the diagnosis and
• Due to the fact that the content of the urine is not constant (e.g. content of activators or inhibitors which may treatment of acidosis (a condition characterized by abnormally high acidity of body fluids) or ketosis (a condition vary from sample to sample, changing ion concentration), the conditions of the reaction are not always the characterized by increased production of ketone bodies) and for monitoring patients with diabetes. Acetone same which may lead to variations of the intensity and the color in rare cases.
and acetoacetic acid react with sodium nitroprusside in alkaline solution to give a violet colored complex • For reflectometric reading, please read carefully the detailed instructions for use of the instruments. As a (Legal‘s test). Normally the urine is free of ketones. Detectable concentrations of ketones can originate from result of the differing spectral sensitivities of the human eye and the optical system of the instruments, it is physiological stress (fasting, pregnancy, excessive sport). Phenylketones in higher concentrations will produce not always possible to obtain precise agreement between the values obtained by visual reading and those variable colors. β-Hydroxybutyric acid is not detected. Phthalein compounds and derivatives of anthrachinone interfere by producing a red coloration in the alkaline range which may mask the coloration of ketones. The • For handling of the test strips, please observe the general working instructions for laboratories.
color fields correspond to the following acetoacetic acid values: 0 (negative), 10 (trace), 25 (+), 100 (++) and • For in vitro diagnostic use only. For trained staff only – not for self testing.
300 (+++) mg/dl or 0 (negative), 1 (trace), 2.5 (+), 10 (++) and 30 (+++) mmol/l. Values of 5 mg/dl (0.5 mmol/l) • Avoid swallowing and contact with eyes and mucous membranes. Keep away from children.
acetoacetic acid or 50 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) acetone are indicated.
• Each laboratory should evaluate it’s own standards for quality control.
Leucocytes: - Intended to detect leucocytes in urine. Leucocytes indicate inflammatory diseases of the
• Literature: Thomas L.; Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, TH-Books, Frankfurt/Main 1998 kidneys and the urinary tract, and suggests need for further investigation. The test is based on the esterase • Refer to the carton and label for package size.
activity of granulocytes. This enzyme splits heterocyclic carboxylates. The component released reacts with a diazonium salt producing a violet color. Urines of healthy subjects do not contain any leucocytes. Positive results, even when constantly varying from „negative“ to „25“, are to be considered as clinically relevant. Strongly = read package insert; = Expiry; = Store at; Do not reuse; colored compounds (e.g. nitrofurantoin) may disturb the color of the reaction. Glucose or oxalic acid in high = this product is conform to the directive 98/79EG dated 27.10.1998; concentrations, drugs containing cephalexine, cephalothine or tetracycline can lead to weakened reactions. = LOT Number; REF = catalogue number
Falsely positive results may be caused by contamination with vaginal secretion. The number of leucocytes which are detected by sediment analysis may be lower than the result of the test strip, because lysed cells are Analyticon® Biotechnologies AG
not detected by sediment analysis. The color fields correspond to the following values: 0 (negative), approx. 35104 Lichtenfels, Germany
25, approx. 75, approx. 500 Leuko/µl. Values of 10 – 20 leucocytes/µl are indicated.
All about Fresh Garlic Garlic Chemistry Garlic contains many compounds that individually possess a wide range of beneficial effects. One of the most biologically active is allicin, which also provides garlic's distinct odor. However, allicin itself is not present in an intact garlic clove. It is formed when a clove is crushed, releasing the precursor alliin and the enzyme allinase, which