DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA T E M A: 0159 COD_PREG: P R E G U N T A:
Every physical process of weather is accompanied by or is the result of
OPCION A: a heat exchange. OPCION B: the movement of air. OPCION C: a pressure differential.
Which conditions are favorable for the formation of a surface based temperature inversion?
OPCION A: Clear, cool nights with calm or light wind. OPCION B: Area of unstable air rapidly transferring heat from the surface. OPCION C: Broad areas of cumulus clouds with smooth, level bases at the same altitude. OPCION A: The Earth's rotation. OPCION B: Air mass modification. OPCION C: Pressure differences.
Why does the wind have a tendency to flow parallel to the isobars above the friction level?
OPCION A: Coriolis force tends to counterbalance the horizontal pressure gradient. OPCION B: Coriolis force acts perpendicular to a line connecting the highs and lows. OPCION C: Friction of the air with the Earth deflects the air perpendicular to the pressure gradient.
With regard to windflow patterns shown on surface analysis charts; when the isobars are
OPCION A: close together, the pressure gradient force is slight and wind velocities are weaker. OPCION B: not close together, the pressure gradient force is greater and wind velocities are stronger. OPCION C: close together, the pressure gradient force is greater and wind velocities are stronger.
What prevents air from flowing directly from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas?
OPCION A: Coriolis force. OPCION B: Surface friction. OPCION C: Pressure gradient force.
Which is true with respect to a high- or low-pressure system?
OPCION A: A high-pressure area or ridge is an area of rising air. OPCION B: A low-pressure area or trough is an area of descending air. OPCION C: A high-pressure area or ridge is an area of descending air.
Which is true regarding high- or low-pressure systems?
OPCION A: A high-pressure area or ridge is an area of rising air. OPCION B: A low-pressure area or trough is an area of rising air. OPCION C: Both high- and low-pressure areas are characterized by descending air.
Which is true regarding actual air temperature and dewpoint temperature spread? The temperature spread
OPCION A: decreases as the relative humidity decreases. OPCION B: decreases as the relative humidity increases. OPCION C: increases as the relative humidity increases. OPCION A: streamers of precipitation trailing beneath clouds which evaporates before reaching the ground. OPCION B: wall cloud torrents trailing beneath cumulonimbus clouds which dissipate before reaching the ground. OPCION C: turbulent areas beneath cumulonimbus clouds. OPCION A: sublimation and condensation. OPCION B: evaporation and condensation. OPCION C: evaporation and sublimation. DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA
Ice pellets encountered during flight normally are evidence that
OPCION A: a warm front has passed. OPCION B: a warm front is about to pass. OPCION C: there are thunderstorms in the area.
What is indicated if ice pellets are encountered at 8,000 feet?
OPCION A: Freezing rain at higher altitude. OPCION B: You are approachig an area of thunderstorms. OPCION C: You will encounter hail if you continue your flight.
Ice pellets encountered during flight are normally evidence that
OPCION A: a cold front has passed. OPCION B: there are thunderstorms in the area. OPCION C: freezing rain exists at hiher altitudes.
When conditionally unstable air with high-moisture content and very warm surface temperature is forecast, one
OPCION A: Strong updrafts and stratonimbus clouds. OPCION B: Restricted visibility near the surface over a large area. OPCION C: Strong updrafts and cumulonimbus clouds.
What is the approximate base of the cumulus clouds if the temperature at 2,000 feet MSL is 70°F and the
OPCION A: 3,000 feet MSL. OPCION B: 4,000 feet MSL. OPCION C: 6,000 feet MSL.
If clouds form as a result of very stable, moist air being forced to ascend a mountain slope, the clouds will be
OPCION A: cirrus type with no vertical development or turbulence. OPCION B: cumulus type with considerable vertical development and turbulence. OPCION C: stratus type with little vertical development and little or no turbulence.
What determines the structure or type of clouds which will form as a result of air being forced to ascend?
OPCION A: The method by which the air is lifted. OPCION B: The stabilityof the air before lifting occurs. OPCION C: The relative humidity of the air after lifting occurs.
Refer to the excerpt from the following METAR report:
KABI.08004KT 4SM HZ.26/04 A2995 RMK RAE36
At approximately what altitude AGL should bases of convective-type cumulifrom clouds be expected? (Usequick estimate method.)
OPCION A: 4,400 feet. OPCION B: 10,000 feet. OPCION C: 17,600 feet.
What are the characteristics of stable air?
OPCION A: Good visibility; steady precipitation; stratus clouds. OPCION B: Poor visibility; steady precipitation; stratus clouds. OPCION C: Poor visibility; intermittent precipitation; cumulus clouds.
Which would decrease the stability of an air mass?
OPCION A: Warming from below. OPCION B: Cooling from below. OPCION C: Decrease in water vapor. DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA
From which measurement of the atmosphere can stability be determined?
OPCION A: Atmospheric pressure. OPCION B: The ambient lapse rate. OPCION C: The dry adiabatic lapse rate.
What type weather can one expect from moist, unstable air, and very warm surface temperatures?
OPCION A: Fog and low stratus clouds. OPCION B: Continuous heavy precipitation. OPCION C: Strong updrafts and cumulonimbus clouds.
Which would increase the stability of an air mass?
OPCION A: Warming from below. OPCION B: Cooling from below. OPCION C: Decrease in water vapor.
The conditions necessary for the formation of stratiform clouds are a lifting action and
OPCION A: unstable, dry air. OPCION B: stable, moist air. OPCION C: unstable, moist air.
Which cloud types would indicate convective turbulence?
OPCION A: Cirrus clouds. OPCION B: Nimbostratus clouds. OPCION C: Towering cumulus clouds.
The presence of standing lenticular altocumulus clouds is a good indication of
OPCION A: lenticular ice formation in clam air. OPCION B: very strong turbulence. OPCION C: heavy icing conditions.
The formation of either predominantly stratiform or predominantly cumuliform clouds is dependent upon the
OPCION A: source of lift. OPCION B: stability of the air being lifted. OPCION C: temperature of the air being lifted.
Which combination of weather-producing variables would likely result in cumuliform-type clouds, good
OPCION A: Stable, moist air and orographic lifting. OPCION B: Unstable, moist air and orographic lifting. OPCION C: Unstable, moist air and no lifting mechanism. OPCION A: Stratiform clouds. OPCION B: Fair weather cumulus clouds. OPCION C: Temperature decreases rapidly with altitude.
A moist, unstable air mass is characterized by
OPCION A: poor visibility and smooth air. OPCION B: cumuliform clouds and showery precipitation. OPCION C: stratiform clouds and continuous precipitation.
When an air mass is stable, which of these conditions are most likely to exist?
OPCION A: Numerous towering cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds. OPCION B: Moderate to severe turbulence at the lower levels. OPCION C: Smoke, dust, haze, etc., concentrated at the lower levels with resulting poor visibility. DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA OPCION A: Cumuliform clouds. OPCION B: Excellent visibility. OPCION C: Restricted visibility.
Which is a characteristic typical of a stable air mass?
OPCION A: Cumuliform clouds. OPCION B: Showery precipitation. OPCION C: Continuous precipitation.
Which is true regarding a cold front occlusion? The air ahead of the warm front
OPCION A: is colder than the air behind the overtaking cold front. OPCION B: is warmer than the air behind the overtaking cold front. OPCION C: has the same temperature as the air behind the overtaking cold front.
Which are characteristics of a cold air mass moving over a warm surface?
OPCION A: Cumuliform clouds, turbulence, and poor visibility. OPCION B: Cumuliform clouds, turbulence, and good visibility. OPCION C: Stratiform clouds, smooth air, and poor visibility.
The conditions necessary for the formation of cumulonimbus clouds are a lifting action and
OPCION A: unstable, dry air. OPCION B: stable, moist air. OPCION C: unstable, moist air.
Fog produced by frontal activity is a result of saturation due to
OPCION A: nocturnal cooling. OPCION B: adiabatic cooling. OPCION C: evaporation of precipitation.
What is an important characteristic of windshear?
OPCION A: It is present at only lower levels and exists in a horizontal direction. OPCION B: It is present at any level and exists in only a vertical direction. OPCION C: It can be present at any level and can exist in both a horizontal and vertical direction.
Hazardous wind shear is commonly encountered
OPCION A: near warm or stationary frontal activity. OPCION B: when the wind velocity is stronger than 35 knots. OPCION C: in areas of temperature inversion and near thunderstorms. OPCION A: surface winds are light and variable. OPCION B: there is a low-level temperature inversion with strong winds above the inversion. OPCION C: surface winds are above 15 knots and there is no change in wind direction and windspeed with height.
If a temperature inversion is encountered immediately after takeoff or during an approach to a landing, a potential
OPCION A: wind shear. OPCION B: string surface winds. OPCION C: strong convective currents. DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA
Winds at 3,000 feet AGL . 30 ktsSurface winds . Calm
While approaching for a landing under clear skies a few hours after sunrise, one should
OPCION A: increase approach airspeed slightly above normal to avoid stalling. OPCION B: keep the approach airspeed at or slightly below normal to compensate for floating. OPCION C: not alter the approach airspeed, these conditions are nearly ideal.
Convective currents are most active on warm summer afternoons when winds are
OPCION A: light. OPCION B: moderate. OPCION C: strong.
When flying low over hilly terrain, ridges, or mountain ranges, the greatest potential danger from turbulent air
currents will usually be encountered on the
OPCION A: leeward side when flying with a tailwind. OPCION B: leeward side when flying into the wind. OPCION C: windward side when flying into the wind.
During an approach, the most important and most easily recognized means of being alerted to possible wind
OPCION A: amount of trim required to relieve control pressures. OPCION B: heading changes necessary to remain on the runway centerline. OPCION C: power and vertical velocity required to remain on the proper glidepath.
During departure, under conditions of suspected low-level wind shear, a sudden decrease in headwind will cause
OPCION A: a loss in airspeed equal to the decrease in wind velocity. OPCION B: a gain in airspeed equla to the decrease in wind velocity. OPCION C: no change in airspeed, but groundspeed will decrease.
Which situation would most likely result in freezing precipitation? Rain falling from air which has a temperature
OPCION A: 32°F or less into air having temperature of more than 32°F. OPCION B: 0°C or less into air having temperature of 0°C or more. OPCION C: more than 32°F or less into air having temperature of 32°F or less.
Which statement is true concerning the hazards of hail?
OPCION A: Hail damage in horizontal flight is minimal due to the vertical movement of hail in the clouds. OPCION B: Rain at the surface is a reliable indication of no hail aloft. OPCION C: Hailstones may be encountered in clear air several miles from a thunderstorm.
Hail is most likely to be associated with
OPCION A: cumulus clouds. OPCION B: cumulonimbus clouds. OPCION C: stratocumulus clouds.
The most severe weather conditions, such as destructive winds, heavy hail, and tornadoes, are generally
OPCION A: slow-moving warm fronts which slope above the tropopause. OPCION B: squall lines. OPCION C: fast-moving occluded fronts.
Of the following, which is accurate regarding turbulence associated with thunderstorms?
OPCION A: Outside the cloud, shear turbulence can be encountered 50 miles laterally from a severe storm. OPCION B: Shear turbulence is encountered only inside cumulonimbus clouds or within a 5-mile radius of them. OPCION C: Outside the cloud, shear turbulence can be encountered 20 miles laterally from a severe storm. DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA
If airborne radar is indicating an extremely intense thunderstorm echo, this thunderstorm should be avoided by a
OPCION A: 20 miles. OPCION B: 10 miles. OPCION C: 5 miles.
Which statement is true regarding squall lines?
OPCION A: They are always associated with cold fronts. OPCION B: They are slow in forming, but rapid in movement. OPCION C: They are nonfrontal and often contain severe, steady-state thunderstorms.
Which statement is true concerning squall lines?
OPCION A: They form slowly, but move rapidly. OPCION B: They are associated with frontal systems only. OPCION C: They offer the most intense weather hazards to aircraft.
Select the true statement pertaining to the life cycle of a thunderstorm. OPCION A: Updrafts continue to develop throughout the dissipating stage of a thunderstorm. OPCION B: The beginning of rain at the Earth's surface indicates the mature stage of the thunderstorm. OPCION C: The beginning of rain at the Earth's surface indicates the dissipating stage of the thunderstorm.
What visible signs indicate extrem turbulence in the thunderstorms?
OPCION A: Base of the clouds near the surface, heavy rain, and hail. OPCION B: Low ceiling and visibility, hail, and precipitation static. OPCION C: Cumulonimbus clouds, very frequent lightning, and roll clouds.
Which weather phenomenon signals the beginning of the mature stage of a thunderstorm?
OPCION A: The start of rain. OPCION B: The appearance of an anvil top. OPCION C: Growth rate of clouds is maximum.
What feature is normally associated with the cumulus stage of a thunderstorm?
OPCION A: Roll cloud. OPCION B: Continuous updraft. OPCION C: Beginning of rain at the surface.
During the life cycle of a thunderstorm, which stage is characterized predominately by downdrafts?
OPCION A: Mature. OPCION B: Developing. OPCION C: Dissipating.
What minimum distance should exist between intense radar echoes before any attempt is made to fly between
OPCION A: 20 miles. OPCION B: 30 miles. OPCION C: 40 miles.
Which in-flight hazard is most commonly associated with warm fronts?
OPCION A: Advection fog. OPCION B: Radiation fog. OPCION C: Precipitation-induced fog.
Which is true regarding the use of airborne weather-avoidance radar for the recognition of certain weather
OPCION A: The radarscope provides no assurance of avoiding instrument weather conditions. OPCION B: The avoidance of hail is assured when flying between and just clear of the most intense echoes. OPCION C: The clear area between intense echoes indicates that visual sighting of storms can be maintained when flying DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA
A situation most conducive to the formation of advection fog is
OPCION A: a light breeze moving colder air over a water surface. OPCION B: an air mass moving inland from the coastline during the winter. OPCION C: a warm, moist air mass settling over a cool surface under no-wind conditions.
Advection fog has drifted over a coastal airport during the day. What may tend to dissipate or lift this fog into
OPCION A: Nighttime cooling. OPCION B: Surface radiation. OPCION C: Wind 15 knots or stronger.
What lifts advection fog into low stratus clouds?
OPCION A: Nighttime cooling. OPCION B: Dryness of the underlying land mass. OPCION C: Surface winds of approximately 15 knots or stronger.
In what ways do advectin fog, radiation fog, and steam for differ in their formation or location?
OPCION A: Radiation fog is restricted to land areas; advection fog is most common along coastal areas; steam fog forms OPCION B: Advection fog deepens as windspeed increases up to 20 knots; steam fog requires calm or very light wind;
radiation fog forms when the ground or water cools the air by radiation. OPCION C: Steam fog forms from moist air moving over a colder surface; advection fog requires cold air over a warmer
surface; radiation fog is produced by radiational cooling of the ground.
With respect to advection fog, which statement is true?
OPCION A: It is slow to develop, and dissipates quite rapidly. OPCION B: It forms almost exclusively at night or near daybreak. OPCION C: It can appear suddenly during day or night, and it is more persistent than radiation fog.
Which feature is associated with the tropopause?
OPCION A: Constant height above the Earth. OPCION B: Abrupt change in temperature lapse rate. OPCION C: Absolute upper limit of cloud formation.
A common location of clear air turbulence is
OPCION A: in an upper trough on the polar side of a jet stream. OPCION B: near a ridge aloft on the equatorial side of a high-pressure flow. OPCION C: south of an east/west oriented high-pressure ridge in its dissipating stage.
The jet stream and associated clear and air turbulence can sometimes be visually identified in flight by
OPCION A: dust or haze at flight level. OPCION B: long streaks or cirrus clouds. OPCION C: a constant outside air temperatures.
During the winter months in the middle latitudes, the jet stream shifts toward the
OPCION A: north and speed decreases. OPCION B: south and speed increases. OPCION C: north and speed increases.
The strength and location of the jet stream is normally
OPCION A: weaker and farther north in the summer. OPCION B: stronger and farther north in the winter. OPCION C: stronger and farther north in the summer.
The conditions most favorable to wave formation over mountainous areas are a layer of
OPCION A: stable air at mountaintop altitude and a wind of at least 20 knots blowing across the ridge. OPCION B: unstable air at mountaintop altitude and a wind of at least 20 knots OPCION C: moist, unstable air at a mountaintop altitude and a wind of less than 5 knots blowing across the ridge. DIRECCION DE PERSONAL AERONAUTICO OGMS/DINF DPTO. DE INSTRUCCION PREGUNTAS Y OPCIONES POR TEMA
Which type of jetstream can be expected to cause the greater turbulence?
OPCION A: A straight jetstream associated with a low-pressure trough. OPCION B: A curving associated with a deep low-pressure trough. OPCION C: A jetstream occurring during the summer at the lower latitudes. OPCION A: in the jetstream front above a core having a speed of 60 to 90 knots. OPCION B: if the 5°C isotherms are spaced between 7° to 10° of latitude. OPCION C: on the low-pressure side of a jetstream core where the speed at the core is stronger than 110 knots.
One of the most dangerous features of mountain waves is the turbulent areas in and
OPCION A: below rotor clouds. OPCION B: above rotor clouds. OPCION C: below lenticular clouds.
Frost covering the upper surface of an airplane wing usually will cause
OPCION A: the airplane to stall at an angle of attack that is higher than normal. OPCION B: the airplane to stall at an angle of attack that is lower than normal. OPCION C: drag factors so large that sufficient speed cannot be obtained for takeoff.
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