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Microsoft word - guide to pharmacology12-09.docx

Introduction
It has been estimated that approximately one of five receptors in the brain. This medication may increase effect. With some benzodiazepines that last longer in people in this country is depressed at any given time. risk of seizures in some people. Wellbutrin is known your body withdrawal symptoms and rebound anxiety This guide is designed to help you understand some of The good news, however, is that depression is very to be effective in aiding in cessation of smoking. may be less frequent and milder. Benzodiazepines are the medications that are prescribed by psychiatrists. It treatable. Many antidepressants are available to treat usually, although not always, used for short-term is by no means a complete compendium of all this common disorder. Many people will recover on treatment of anxiety (potentially for a few days to medications. It briefly touches upon the categories of medication used for treating common psychiatric Anxiety is generally defined as an overwhelming disorders, describing the indications for medication, sense of uneasiness or discomfort. It may be related Obsessive
Compulsive
Disorder
an overview of how the medications work, and the The first line of antidepressants therapy is called to a precipitating condition or situation (i.e. an potential for addiction and adverse effects. serotonergic re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) because of upcoming examination) though at times the cause may Obsessive compulsive disorder is a form of anxiety their specific action on a neurochemical called disorder that affects approximately 2% of the It is also important to remember the following points: serotonin. Prozac (fluoxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), and population. The main features of this disorder are Paxil (paroxetine), Lexapro (escitalopram) and Celexa There are many medications that can be used to treat obsessions (intrusive thoughts that one cannot 1. Medication is frequently given for a period of (citalopram) are all SSRI’s. They seem to be very anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines are one of the control), and/or compulsions (repetitive behaviors that time rather than indefinitely. This will depend well tolerated because of their low side effect profile one must engage in to reduce anxiety). This disorder and low lethality. These medications take three to six Benzodiazepine medications have been around for a can be very disabling and disturbing. Fortunately, weeks to work to increase the amount of serotonin long time and have many uses; among them muscle several medications are available that are effective in 2. When considering whether to take medication or available in the brain. Low levels of serotonin (and relaxation, induction of sleep, and rapid relief against treating both the obsessions and compulsions. The while taking medication, it is important to ask other neurotransmitters) can lead to depression. common forms of anxiety. Medications in the class SSRI class of medications is effective in treating OCD your doctor questions and voice your concerns. include valium, librium, xanax, klonopin and ativan. symptoms as well as older classes of antidepressants. Another class of antidepressants is called Serotonin- Benzodiazepines act by increasing GABA, an 3. Medication is most often taken in conjunction norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI’s) because inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. While the with counseling in order to receive maximum of their specific action on serotonin and clinical effects for all benzodiazepines are similar, norepinephrine. Effexor (Venlafaxine),Cymbalta they differ in the length of time they are active in the Mania is a sense of euphoria often associated with a (duloxetine) and Pristiq(desvenlafaxine) are examples body. All the benzodiazepines have a potential for decreased need for sleep, increased appetite, increased Depression
of SNRI’s. Common side effects related to SNRI’s abuse and one may develop tolerance to them; include constipation, nervousness, decreased sleep, energy, and a sense of overwhelming well being, however under the supervision of a psychiatrist, this is nausea, headaches, sweating and decreased appetite. almost grandiosity. Some self-destructive behaviors Depression is a medical illness like any other medical unlikely to occur. Another medication, Buspar, is a SNRI’s may also elevate blood pressure so this must including increased spending, sexual promiscuity, and illness. Common symptoms of depression include non-benzodiazepine antianxiety drug. It has no substance abuse may also occur. Mania occurs as part problems with sleep and appetite, loss of potential for abuse; however it may take as long as of bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depression) concentration and memory, lack of interest, low Trazodone, another antidepressant, is helpful for sleep which includes periods of highs and lows in cycles. energy and a low mood. There also may be disturbance. Some antidepressants, may be The common drugs used to treat mania include tearfulness, indecisiveness a sense of helplessness, Sedation is the most common adverse effect of the energizing and disrupt sleep. Low doses of trazodone lithium, Valproate, Lamictal and Tegretol. These hopelessness, and guilt. These symptoms of a benzodiazepines. Inability to remember for a period medications are called mood stabilizers. pervasive nature affect mood, thinking, and behavior of hours after taking the drug is another potential side for a period of two weeks or more. Major depression effect. Overdoses of benzodiazepines can be lethal if The most common side effects with serotonergic re- A patient taking a mood stabilizer must be closely often requires treatment with medications. The taken with alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, or other uptake inhibitors include nausea, headache, monitored by their physician. Lab work to check diagnosis may be related to anxiety, insomnia, drugs that depress the central nervous system. For nervousness and insomnia. Agitation and increased levels of drug, liver function, thyroid function, blood substance abuse, or medical problems. Many drugs this reason, patients on benzodiazepines are usually anxiety may occur in the first weeks of treatment and test and kidney function will need to be done on a including oral contraceptives, high blood pressure encouraged to avoid alcohol. Physical dependence subside later. All serotonergic re-uptake inhibitors routine basis. Side effects of mood stabilizers include medication, long-term benzodiazepine use, and illegal may develop with chronic use. Withdrawal symptoms may cause delayed orgasm or inability to achieve sedation, weight gain, tremor and impaired cognition. substances such as cocaine can also cause depression. including insomnia, nausea, vomiting, twitching, orgasm in both men and women. This side effect may Mood stabilizers also have many drug interactions Moreover, a very common substance, alcohol may sweating, and muscle cramping can develop when with other prescription drugs. It is important to tell (with long-term use) cause or worsen depression. these drugs are abruptly discontinued, especially after your doctor if you are taking any additional prolonged or excessive use. Gradual tapering of Wellbutrin (bupropion) is an antidepressant that medications while taking a mood stabilizer. dosage, sometimes over weeks or months, is affects both the norepinephrine and dopamine recommended in order to avoid this potential side Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a condition characterized by difficulties with attention, concentration and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. These difficulties must first be present in childhood. The above descriptions are by no means a complete or Approximately one third of children diagnosed with exhaustive survey of all the psychiatric conditions attention deficit disorder in childhood will have seen by psychiatrists. However they give a brief residual symptoms as adults. Medications used to review of the more common conditions seen in a treat this condition include stimulants such as college setting. This material is provided to you as a Wellbutrin, Ritalin, and Adderall as well as many of means to help you to understand both some of the the antidepressants previously mentioned in the terms that your counselor at Psychological Services discussion on depression. Those who suffer from may use and what might be expected should you be ADD may benefit from working with Learning referred to a psychiatrist. For more information, Services in order to learn behavioral strategies to cope please consult your counselor at Counseling and with attention and concentration difficulties. Psychosis
If you have any questions, please call CAPS (Counseling and Psychological Services) at 993-2380 Psychosis is a state in which one has difficulty distinguishing reality from unreality. This can be acute or long term. Psychosis may be caused by a Edited by Brinda Krishnan M.D., Psychiatrist, George variety of factors including drug intoxication, head Mason University, Counseling and Psychological trauma, overwhelming infections or a biologically Antipsychotics are the drug of choice used to treat this Counseling and Psychological Services
condition. Among the well known antipsychotics are Zyprexa (olanzapine), Seroquel (quetiapine), Risperdal (risperidone) and Haldol (haloperidol). Side Psychological Services Rm 364 703-993-2380
effects include sedation, dry mouth, blurred vision, changes in liver function, and changes in glucose Self-Help Resource Library Rm 354 703-993-2999 metabolism, weight gain and change in blood Peer Empowerment Program Rm 221 703-993-2377

Source: http://caps.gmu.edu/educationalprograms/pamphlets/Psychopharmacology12-09.pdf

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