Microsoft word - insomnia.doc

Insomnia is a sleep problem that involves a change in one's normal sleep with a reduced ability to function the next day. It is the consequences of the daytime sleepiness and fatigue that makes insomnia potential y dangerous. Approximately one third of the population experience a sleep problem in any given year. More women seem to experience insomnia than men, and its prevalence increases with age. Normal Sleep Patterns
The human body requires sleep to refresh and rejuvenate itself, but the amount of time needed for this restorative process varies greatly from individual to individual. Some individuals need just a few hours sleep each day, while others require ten hours or more. Regardless of the amount of sleep an individual needs, most healthy individuals have a sleep pattern which consists of two distinct stages. The first stage is cal ed non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep since few eye movements are observed at this stage. The second stage is cal ed rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep because it is general y associated with characteristic involuntary eye movements. As an individual fal s asleep, they begin the NREM sleep stage. During NREM sleep, they pass from a lighter sleep to a deep sleep. When the individual reaches the deepest NREM sleep, REM sleep occurs. REM sleep is the most NREM and REM sleep occur cyclical y throughout the night. A ful NREM/REM cycle takes about 1.5 hours. As the night progresses, the proportion of the cycle composed of NREM sleep decreases while the proportion of REM sleep increases. Overal , the majority of sleep is actual y spent in NREM sleep with REM sleep accounting for only about 1/4 of total sleep time. Sleep Patterns & Insomnia
Insomnia usual y presents as an inability to fal asleep, frequent awakenings during the night or waking up early in the morning. While there is general agreement that insomnia involves a change in normal sleep patterns, no consistent alterations in sleep stages have been identified. Younger people who experience insomnia tend to have trouble fal ing asleep, while older people with insomnia have difficulty maintaining Causes of Insomnia
Insomnia is not a disease. It is a symptom or effect of some underlying cause. As table 1 il ustrates, the Causes of Insomnia
Psychological Factors:
Stress, depression, schizophrenia, dementia, sleep state misperception, reinforcement of Physical Disorders:
Restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder (nocturnal myoclonus), sleep apnea syndrome, hyperthyroidism, fibromyalgia, arthritis, chronic pain, headache, pruritus, gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chroea, Tourette's syndrome, cardiac problems. Sybstances:
Alcohol caffeine, nicotine, medications (See table 2) Circadian Rhythm Problems
Jet lag, sudden changes in shift work times, delayed sleep phase syndrome, advances sleep Poor Sleep Environment:
Bed partner, bed, light, temperature, noise Poor Sleep Habits
Irregular sleep/wake schedule, lying in bed, naps, bed as a cue for arousal. Psychological factors are the biggest contributors to insomnia. Stress, in the form of anxiety, excitement, worry or anger, causes a state of hyperarousal and makes fal ing asleep difficult. Insomnia is a commonly associated symptom of depression as wel as other mood anxiety and thought disorders such as schizophrenia and dementia. Sleep state misperception is a condition in which an individual, presented with the prospect of bedtime, experiences stimulation rather than relaxation. Many insomniacs add to their problem by worrying about whether they wil be able to fal asleep. This reinforces the insomnia. Panic attacks during sleep or recurrent nightmares causes frequent awakenings and are destructive to sleep. Insomnia often results from a number of physical disorders. Restless legs syndrome is a non-painful discomfort in the lower legs which produces an extreme urge to move the legs when resting or fal ing sleep. Periodic limb movement disorder, also cal ed nocturnal myoclonus, is characterized by repetitive short jerking movements of the limbs (usual y the feet) which occur during the light stages of sleep and result in frequent awakenings. Individuals with sleep apnea syndrome suffer from periods of sleep-associated interruptions of breathing. Their sleep is fragmented because of repeated awakenings to resume breathing. In hyperthyroidism, the body's increased metabolic rate adversely affects normal sleep patterns. Numerous other medical problems listed in table 1 result in pain or physical discomfort which prevents or disrupts The use of substances such as alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and medications can cause insomnia. While alcohol causes short term sleepiness, this fol owed by rebound excitement which results in frequent awakenings later in the night. Nicotine and caffeine are ventral nervous system (CNS) stimulants. Smoking the consumption of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages or caffeine-containing medications near bedtime may cause insomnia. As listed in table 2, many medications have the potential to interfere with sleep. While most of these medications produce insomnia through a CNS stimulant effect, a few exceptions should be noted. Diuretics taken late in the afternoon or evening and excessive laxative use cause frequent awakenings to go to the toilet. Cimetidine, in addition to being a CNS stimulant, has been associated with agitation and confusion. The beta-blockers listen in table 2 have been known to cause nightmares. Circadian rhythm problems occur when the body's internal sleep timing mechanism is disrupted. This may occur as a result of jet lag or sudden changes in shift work times. Delayed sleep phase syndrome is a condition in which the individual's internal timing for sleepiness is delayed. People with delayed sleep phase syndrome have difficulty fal ing asleep at night and are tired in the morning. Advanced sleep phase syndrome is characterized by the opposite phenomenon. The individual awakes early in the morning and Insomnia is often the result of a poor sleep environment. For example, a bed partner who snores or is restless in the night, an uncomfortable bed or a bedroom that is too bright, stuffy, hot, cold or noisy can affect one's ability to fal asleep and the quality of sleep. Sleep patterns change with age. As an individual grows older, they spend more sleep time in the light stages of sleep. This means there are more and longer awakenings and a lower threshold for arousal by noise. The elderly often experience a circadian rhythm advancement so they go to bed earlier and wake earlier. Alterations in circadian rhythm are aggravated by daytime napping. Poor sleep habits are behaviours that can contribute to sleep problems. They are often acquired in the early years when an individual's sleep system is relatively powerful. As the individual ages and the sleep system is not as strong, poor sleep habits become a problem. Poor sleep habits include an irregular sleep/wake schedule; lying in bed daydreaming or worrying; daytime napping; and watching television, eating or working in bed so the bed becomes a cue for arousal. Medications which may interfere with sleep
(where appropriate, brand name examples are provided in brackets)
o metoprolol (Lopressure™, Betaloc™) • quinidine (Biquin™, Quinidex™, Quinate™, Carioquin™) • theophyl ine (Quibron™, Theo-Dur™, Theolair™, Uniphyl™) • thyroid preparations (Eltroxin™, Synthroid™) Management
Since insomnia is a symptom or effect of an underlying cause, the first step in the management of insomnia is to identify the cause. Management efforts should then be directed at eliminating the cause. This might mean correcting an underlying psychological or physical disorder; eliminating stress and emotional causes; refraining from smoking or ingesting alcohol - or caffeine-containing foods, beverages or medications near bedtime; discontinuing a medication which causes insomnia; or altering sleep habits and/or environment. Nonpharmacologic Treatments
A number of nonpharmacologic approaches have been found to be effective for treating insomnia. These include sleep hygiene, sleep restriction, bright light therapy, chronotherapy, relaxation training, meditation, biofeedback and cognitive therapy. Sleep hygiene is a term which refers to a routine set of behaviours that promote natural restorative sleep. • Avoid daytime napping or spending extended amounts of time in bed awakeAvoid al forms of caffeine and alcohol within 3 or 4 hours of bedtimeAvoid consuming heavy meals or smoking before bedtimeAvoid heavy exercise or emotional y upsetting activities close to bedtime but continue to exercise regularly during the day or eveningTry to relax for one hour before bedtime. A warm bath, a light snack or some reading can be relaxingMake the bedroom and bed as comfortable as possibleEstablish a consistent bedtime and wake-up timeIf you can't fal asleep after 15 to 20 minutes, get out of bed and return only when you are sleepyUse the bedroom only for activities associated with sleep and intimacy. Watching television, eating, paying bil s or working should be done in another room Providing the insomniac with basic information about sleep and sleep hygiene is the cornerstone of the Sleep restriction is a technique by which insomniacs are instructed to limit the time they spend in bed to the number of hours of sleep they think they normal y obtain. Since insomniacs general y underestimate how much sleep they get, this technique usual y results in sleep deprivation. The sleep deprivation helps the individual to consolidate sleep. As they subsequently fol ow a gradual schedule of increasing the amount of sleep, sleep efficiency improves. Sleep restriction is useful for treating individuals who have difficulty Bright light has a powerful effect on resetting the body's "clock". Properly timed exposures to particular light intensities can shift the clock backward or forward. Bright light therapy is very useful for treating delayed or advanced sleep phase syndrome. Chronotherapy provides another treatment for these syndromes. Bedtime is successively delayed by daily increments of three hours until sleep onset coincides with the desired bedtime. Once the bedtime has been established, the individual must maintain a regular sleep/wake Relaxation training, meditation and biofeedback are procedures designed to relax the individual at bedtime so they wil fal asleep faster. Depending on the procedure, progressive relaxation, autogenic training, transcendental meditation, yoga, hypnosis and electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback are used. Cognitive therapy provides the insomniac with psychological tools to cope with insomnia. Therapy focuses on getting the insomniac to see themselves in control of their problem, instead of seeing themselves as a Pharmacologic Treatments
When nonpharmacologic treatments fail to adequately manage the sleep problem, consideration can be given to adding a sleeping medication. Pharmacologic options are listed in table 3. Al of these medications have a CNS depressant effect which can be enhanced by other CNS depressant substances or medications and none are recommended for individuals who suffer from sleep apnea syndrome. Prescription Medications
Once the mainstay of treatment for insomnia, ethclorynol and barbiturates such as amobarbital and secobarbital are no longer recommended for treating insomnia. They have been replaced by safer and Long-acting benzodiazepines, such as flurazepam and nitrazepam, have the potential to accumulate with continuous use and may cause residual daytime drowsiness. The intermediate-acting benzodiazepines listed in table 3 also have the potential for accumulation but this can be minimized by using the lowest dose. Lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepame are in the products of choice for treating insomnia in the elderly because the metabolism of these three benzodiazepines is not affected by age. Their slower onset of action makes them ideal for treating insomnia characterized by frequent awakenings. When used to treat delayed sleep onset, lorazepam and temazepam should be taken one-half hour and oxazepame taken one hour before bedtime. Despite negative publicity, triazolam, when used in low doses, is very effective for treating delayed sleep onset insomnia. Zopiclone, although chemical y different from the benzodiazepines, is very similar to triazolam in its therapeutic action. Al benzodiazepines and zopiclone may cause anterograde type of acute memory loss. Once again, this can be minimized by using the lowest possible dose. Chloral hydrate is an effective sleeping medication when used for a few nights to treat transient insomnia. However, tolerance to its hypnotic effect develops within two weeks so it is recommended only for Tolerance may develop with al the prescription medications used to treat insomnia. Tolerance means the medication becomes less effective so the dose has to be increased to to get the same effect. Increasing the dose increases the potential for side effects, particularly residual daytime drowsiness. The "rule of thumb" for prescription sleeping medications is: use the lowest effective dose with intermittent dosing (two to for times weekly) for a short period of time (no more than two to four weeks) and withdraw the medication slowly, paying close attention to rebound insomnia. Elderly individuals should always be started with one- Antidepressants
When insomnia is a symptom of depression, antidepressants are useful. However, in the absence of depression, there is no rationale for utilizing an antidepressant as a sleeping medication. In fact, as indicated in table 2, antidepressants may actual y cause insomnia. L-Tryptophan
L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid found in foods such as tuna and milk. It possesses a sedating effect, but there is little scientific evidence to support l-tryptophan supplementation as a treatment for Diphenhydramin
Diphenhydramine is a highly sedating antihistamine which is effective for initiating sleep, but not very effective for maintaining sleep. It can cause daytime drowsiness and has troublesome anticholinergic side effects which make it a poor choice as a sleeping medication for the elderly. It must be used cautiously by individuals with epilepsy, narrow angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers and gastric or bladder obstruction. Herbal Sleep Aids
In recent years, herbal sleep aids have become very popular. Table 3 lists the most common herbs reputed to have sedative and relaxant properties. Although little scientific evidence of their efficacy exists, the herbs listed in table 3 appear to be safe when used appropriately in healthy individuals. Pharmacologic treatments for insomnia
(Brand name examples are provided in brackets)
Intermediate-acting Benzodiazepines
Short-acting Benzodiazepines
Herbal Sleep Aids
PHARMAwise is authored and published by Dawn M. Frail, B.Sc. (Pharm), M.Sc. and made possible through the support of the Pharmacy &
Apotex Continuing Education (PACE) program, the Apotex Advisory Board and your pharmacist. Reference to articles contained in this
infoletter are available by contacting the Apotex Professional Affairs Department at 1-800-268-4623, extension 8456.
PHARMAwise is intended to provide drug and health information to care providers. The publisher, sponsor, and distributor are not
responsible for losses arising from the use of information in this publication.


Microsoft word - rev 8 text.doc

Revelation 2:18-29—Lesson 8 Let's open our Bibles to Revelation chapter 2. Verses 18-29 form the text of the letter to the church in Thyatira. It's a letter about a church that had many good points, but also was engaged in compromising with error, compromising with sin, just like the church at Pergamum. Only what was beginning to happen in Pergamum had come to ful bloom in Thyatira. If t

Bagpress prices january2011.xls

Pneumatic Vacuum Press Kit - Runs off your compressor - 1300mm x 800mm 200 micron polyurethane bagPneumatic Vacuum Press Kit - Runs off your compressor - 1300mm x 800mm 200 micron polyurethane bagPneumatic Vacuum Press Kit - Runs off your compressor - 1300mm x 2500mm 300 micron polyurethane bagLow Cost Electric Kits - Please note: Original MiniPress kit only whilst stocks last - Est April 201

Copyright © 2010 Find Medical Article