drug conjugates and the drugs which may be present in the urinesample, for binding to antibodies. In the test procedure, a sample ofurine is placed in the Sample well of the device and is allowed tomigrate upward. If the drug is present in the urine sample, itcompetes with the drug conjugate bound to the dye, for the limitedantibodies immobilized on the membrane. If the level of drug ordrug metab
Gel linersGEL LINERS: Skin problems and their treatment
Blistering or Redness:
Some patients experience skin blistering on the very end of your residual
limb. This can be caused if you fail to flatten the liner and place it firmly
against your limb before rolling the liner up (Figure 1). Also, if the liner
becomes too large because your limb reduces in size significantly, blistering
on the end can also occur. In that case, you should contact CPO to obtain a
Blistering or redness is also possible under the upper edge of the gel liner. This is usually caused by pulling up the liner edge rather than rolling it up (Figure 2). If you roll it up and still experience redness under the upper edge of the liner, apply A & D OINTMENT or a special silicone lubricant (available from CPO) only under the upper two inches of your liner to allow the liner to slide on your skin.
Pink, itchy patches
Thoroughly wash the inside of your liner after use each day with a mild,
hypoallergenic, unscented soap like clear ivory liquid dish detergent (Figure
3). If you fail to wash your liner properly and alternate liners daily, you will
develop a fungus similar to athlete’s foot. Application before bedtime with
an anti-fungal ointment such as TINACTIN for nearly two weeks is
necessary. Particularly stubborn dermatitis can be treated with MICATIN
(over the counter), TRIAMCINOLONE CREAM, CICLOPIROX or BACKTROBAN (all by prescription). In very rare cases, eczema may develop and can be successfully treated under the care of a dermatologist
with ELOCON ointment (by prescription). In cases of chronic fungal
problems, the inside of the liner should be cleaned with a solution of either
1-2 vinegar/water or 10% bleach/water solution.
Chronic perspiration under liner
Generally, patients do not experience perspiration except during very vigorous activities such as when running.
It is common, however, to notice beads of perspiration form on your skin immediately after removing your liner.
Some patients have chronic perspiration problems inside their gel liners with strenuous physical activity. A
number of unscented antiperspirants have been effective. Those are CERTAIN DRI (over the counter) and
DRYSOL (by prescription); however, both can cause skin irritation and should initially be used sparingly.
Alternatively, for amputees whose skin reacts to the aluminum chloride in those antiperspirants, two over-the-
counter natural products, Crystal Body Deodorant and Thai Deodorant, can be used. The antiperspirant is
typically applied before bedtime.
To bathe your residual limb, use mild, unscented soap and rinse well. Bath soaps like Lever 2000, Dial and
Irish Spring, therefore, should be avoided. Refrain from applying lotions and creams on your residual limb in
the morning before applying your gel liner.
With proper liner cleaning and donning, the vast majority of patients experience no skin problems from
using a gel liner. No one has been found to be actually allergic to the liners.
The Influence of the Menstrual Cycle and the Oral Contraceptive Pill on the Female Singing Performance Filipa Lã1, Jane Davidson1, William Ledger2, David Howard3 & Georgina Jones4 Affiliation: Universities of Sheffield and York. Music Department, University of Sheffield1; Academic Unit of Reproductive and DevelopmentalMedicine, University of Sheffield2; Electronics Department, University