Journal of Nuclear Medicine, published on April 10, 2013 as doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.112177 Reporting Guidance for Oncologic 18F-FDG PET/CT ImagingRyan D. Niederkohr1, Bennett S. Greenspan2, John O. Prior3, Heiko Schöder4, Marc A. Seltzer5,Katherine A. Zukotynski6,7, and Eric M. Rohren81Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Santa Clara, California; 2Department of Ra
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Ibd cd.qxdInflammatory Bowel Disease:
● Endoscopy and biopsies of the upper and lower intestine Inflammatory Bowel
How is Crohn’s disease treated?
IBD refers to a chronic inflam-
The aim of treatment is to decrease the inflammation causing the damage to the intestines. Even though a cure is not yet possible, control of symptoms can be very effective in most patients. The number of medications available continues to Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis affects only the lining of the increase, and new treatments can be expected in the future.
large intestine (the colon), while Crohn’s disease can involve The medications most commonly used to treat Crohn’s disease any part of the intestine, small or large, and irritate not only the ● Antibiotics, such as metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and ● ASA anti-inflammatories, such as Azulfidine ®, Colazal ®, How common is
Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
● Steroids,such as prednisone, prednisolone or budesonide Immuno-modulators, such as Purinethol®, Imuran® or It is estimated that about 1,000,000 Americans suffer from IBD.
Males and females are affected equally. Crohn’s disease may occur at any age, including young children but occurs most ● Nutritional treatments with supplemental liquid formulas. This often in young adults. Most cases of Crohn’s disease are can be particularly applicable to children who eat poorly and diagnosed before age 30. Crohn’s disease tends to occur in families and in certain ethnic groups, such as EasternEuropean Jews. About 5-8% of patients may have a familymember with IBD and about 20-25% of patients may have a Is there a role for surgery?
close relative with the condition. However, it can occur in anyethnic group and in members of families where no one else is Because there is high risk of recurrence after surgery, this option is reserved for complications such as an obstructionfrom a narrowed area of the intestine, chronic pain, bleeding, or What causes Crohn’s disease?
when using all other medicine does not work.
It is currently believed that Crohn’s disease occurs in For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroenterologist individuals as a result of genetic and environmental factors.
in your area please visit our website at: www.naspghan.org For unknown reasons, the immune system becomes abnormally active against the individual’s own system. It IMPORTANT REMINDER: This information from the North American Society for
targets not only the intestine, but sometimes other organs like Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) is intended only to provide general information and not as a definitive basis for diagnosis ortreatment in any particular case. It is very important that you consult your doctorabout your specific condition. What are the symptoms of Crohn’s disease?
● Diarrhea, sometimes with blood and mucus How is Crohn’s disease diagnosed?
The diagnosis of Crohn’s disease may be suspected on the NORTH AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY,
basis of the medical history, but the final determination HEPATOLOGY AND NUTRITION
depends on the results from the required diagnostic tests. The work-up usually includes: NASPGHAN • PO Box 6 • Flourtown, PA 19031
215-233-0808 • Fax: 215-233-3939
ASTHMA POLICY RATIONALE Asthma affects up to one in four children and one in seven adolescents. It is important for teachers and staff to be aware of the symptoms, triggers and the management of asthma in the school environment. Asthma is the most common reason for school non-attendance and hospital admission in school age children. Teachers also need to be aware of exercise-in