Calculating Confidence Intervals for the Number Needed to Treat Ralf Bender, PhD Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Public Health, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany ABSTRACT: The number needed to treat (NNT) has gained much attention in the past years as a useful way of reporting the results of randomized controlled trials with a binaryoutcome. Def
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Microsoft word - comprehensive ref doc for negative ions and elanra.docAPPENDIX D.
Negative Ions and the Elanra Ioniser
A comprehensive crib sheet
[Compiled by M. Kearney in March 2003]
Section 1. Key Points on ions, ionisers and health
Section 2. Back-up to the Key Points
Section 3. Key Details on the Elanra Products
What are negative ions?
Ions are formed when an electron is detached from a neutral molecule. The molecule losing an
electron becomes a positive ion and the molecule gaining an electron becomes a negative ion.
What do negative ions do?
Most people are aware that negative ions clean the air. They do this by attracting the positively
charged pollutants in the air which form ion clusters. These clusters become heavy and fall to the
nearest earthed surface (floor, shelf etc). They also have an oxidative effect on airborne bacteria
For example if used in a hospital, they will help protect you from hospital “Superbugs” or from
airborne pathogens such as TB on an airplane.
However, air cleaning is not even half the story. In nature, small breathable negative ions have a
biological role to play. They have a direct impact on the body's ability to absorb oxygen into
blood cells, oxidize excess serotonin in the blood stream and enhance or retard the body's
efficiency in filtering airborne contaminants from lung tissue.
How will I benefit from exposure to small breathable negative ions?
• Provide an effective barrier to airborne • Less susceptibility to colds and flu. • Improvement in breathing through the • Improved learning ability for children. • Increased utilisation of Vitamins C & B. • Relief from allergies and hay fever. APPENDIX D.
• Relief from sore throat, bronchial cough • Normalization of hormone imbalances. • Decreased depression, irritability and • Relief from discomfort caused by excess
What does an ioniser do?
Most of today’s ionisers produce “medium” and “large” (a cluster of 50+ molecules) negative ions
which act as air cleaners to a greater or lesser degree. However, to be biologically active, as in
nature, the ions need to be of the “small” or “light” variety (less than 10 molecules). The only
ionisers in the world to produce these small negative ions, in a patented process, are the Elanra
Therapeutic Ionisers. These small ions are also known as oxygen ions.
Why do we need to artificially create negative ions if they exist naturally?
If we lived beside a waterfall or by the ocean where there are lots of negative ions we wouldn’t
have to but our modern environment strips the air of them, for example;
• The grounded steel structure of buildings’ remove negative ions. • Central heating and air conditioning strip the air of negative ions. • Synthetic carpets, drapes and upholstery carry a high positive charge and neutralise • TV and PC monitors strip the air of negative ions Are all negative ions the same?
No. Ions can be categorised as small, medium or large. Only the “small” negative ions are
mobile enough to pass through the alveoli and into the blood stream. The “medium” and “large”
ions clusters are filtered out by the respiratory system.
Are positive ions also good for you?
In nature positive and negative ions are found pretty much in balance. However, all research
shows that positive ions, when not balanced by negative ions, can cause health problems including
migraine, respiratory problems, irritability, nausea, dizziness, depression and more. Negative ions
on the other hand do not appear to need to be balanced with positive ions. In other words you
can’t get enough of them and there are no side effects.
Back-up information to Section 1.
Negative ions reduce and/or destroy bacteria, viruses and other
Leeds University and St. James’s Hospital Leeds (NHS funded study 2002) In a response to the alarming rise in the incidence of hospital “Superbugs” the NHS funded a year long study into the effect that negative ions have on these often lethal bugs and in particular the bacteria Acinetobacter which is resistant to nearly all antibiotics. The result prompted lead consultant in the intensive care unit, Dr. Stephen Dean, to say, “The results have been fantastic – so much so that we have asked the University to leave the ionisers with us. Since the trial finished in May we’ve kept them in operation and have continued to see greatly reduced Acinetobacter infections on the ward.” A recent study by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture found that ionizing a room led to 52% less dust in the air, and 95% less bacteria in the air (since many of the pollutants found in the air reside on floating dust particles). The Agriculture Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture tested the effectiveness of ionisers for removing dust in a poultry hatchery. The dust level is very high in such an environment. In this study, the use of an ioniser resulted in dust removal efficiencies that averaged between 81.1 and 92.2%. The airborne transmission of salmonella (to the eggs) was also significantly reduced as a result. Scientists showed that ionization reduced bacterial levels in burns and plastic surgery units by over 96% after a two week period, which results in much better and more rapid healing of patients. The use of negative ions was even found by scientists to reduce the presence of airborne viruses by about 40%. A study featured in the 1987 issue also showed the negative ions are free from any adverse side effects. APPENDIX D.
Ions don’t just clean the air they are biologically active
Professor Albert Kruger of Berkeley University, California, demonstrated that ions are biologically active. As such, they exert a direct impact on the body's ability to absorb oxygen into blood cells, oxidize serotonin in the blood stream and enhance or retard the body's efficiency in filtering airborne contaminants from lung tissue. His findings further isolated the negative ions as being productive to biological efficiency while the positive ions were generally found to be detrimental. The absence of either positive or negative charges in the breathable atmosphere resulted in death by suffocation to laboratory mice since their systems were unable to absorb non-ionised oxygen. Negative ions improve asthma and other respiratory conditions.
Research from Australia's National University (ANU), the Pavlov Institute in Russia, and St Bartholomew's Hospital in London showed that improved lung capacity and relief from asthma symptoms are achieved quite rapidly by exposure to small negative air ions. Brazilian hospitals now commonly use negative ion generators to treat breathing problems, after a test involving 36 children with asthmatic allergies. In each case, the problem was consistent or crippling. During the treatment, only one of them suffered an asthma attack. Afterward, no attacks were suffered by any of the children that sustained regular negative ion therapy (Soyka, 1991). In 1966, a hospital in Jerusalem conducted a study involving 38 babies, between the ages of two and twelve months, with about the same degree of respiratory problems. The babies were separated into two groups of nineteen. One group was treated with nothing but a negative ion electronic air cleaner, while the second group was administered the standard treatment, which included drugs and antibiotics with side effects. The babies in the group treated with the negative ion air purifier were cured of asthma and bronchitis much more quickly than those in the control group. The babies in the negative ion group were also found to be less prone to rebound attacks. Less scientifically, doctors found that the babies treated by negative ion-enriched air didn’t cry as often or as loudly. But as Fred Soyka, the author of The Ion Effect puts it, "there is nothing subjective about a bawling baby" (Soyka, 1991). In 1975, an East German doctor, who had by then treated more than 11,000 individuals with various respiratory conditions with a negative ion electronic air cleaner, said that his patients reported with "monotonous regularity" that the therapy had worked (Soyka, 1991). In the early 1960s, Dr. A. P. Wehner used negative ion generators to treat over 1,000 patients in the U. S. suffering from various respiratory ills, such as bronchial asthma, pulmunary emphysema, laryngitis, bronchitis, dry hacking cough, upper respiratory tract infection, and allergies. He reported that the symptoms completely disappeared in 30.3% of the cases, improved significantly in 42.3% of the cases, showed some improvement in 20% of the cases, and showed no signs of improvement in 7.4% of the cases (Wehner, 1962). APPENDIX D.
In Britain, two Oxford University statisticians conducted a study among victims of asthma, bronchitis, and hay fever. The sample was randomly selected from a list of people who had purchased a negative ion air purifier. Through interviews, they found that 18 of 24 asthmatics, 13 of 17 bronchitis sufferers, 11 of 12 hay fever victims, and 6 of 10 suffering from nasal catarrh, reported that the product had noticeably improved their condition. A few even reported that it cured their condition (Soyka, 1991). When a negative is better than a positive Positive ions, which occur in high levels in many indoor environments, inhibit the body’s ability to prevent pollutants and contaminates from entering the vulnerable areas of the respiratory tract. However, an overdose of negative ions has proven to provide counteraction to this effect (Kreuger, 1974; Soyka, 1991; Tchijewski, 1960). Negative ions are needed in order to take in oxygen.
"Please, we’re dying here!" Russian scientist, Dr. A. L. Tchijewsky, tried raising mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits in totally de-ionized air. Almost all of them died within two weeks due to an inability to utilize oxygen properly (Tchijewski, 1960). Tchijewsky’s colleague, Dr. D. A. Lapitsky, tried raising small animals in air completely devoid of oxygen. He added only negative ions to the air as they were about to die from asphyxiation. At which point, their respiration frequency drastically increased, as they began to sit up and run around the chamber (Tchijewski, 1960). Former NASA scientist James B. Beal, who came across the negative ion problem while studying the type of environment needed in space capsules, wrote: "The human race was developed in ionized air. Nature used the ions in developing our biological processes." In other words, people have been designed to function properly in an environment that contains certain level of ionization (Soyka, 1991). Fred Soyka, author of "The Ion Effect" reports that based on the 5,000 plus scientific documents that have been published regarding negative ion studies, all support the conclusion that an overload of negative ions seems to be beneficial (Soyka, 1991). Negative ions and the immune system
Research from universities all over the world, including Australia's La Trobe University, clearly showed that small negative air ions of oxygen, when breathed in, increase the body's production of Immunoglobulin A (IgA). The study from LaTrobe states that "such a finding is suggestive of an enhancement of the immune response as a result of negative ionisation. IgA guards against viral and bacterial APPENDIX D.
attachment and colonization of mucous membrane." In plain english that means it helps stop bugs invading your lungs! Negative ions counteract the effects of smoking.
High levels of negative ions neutralize the effect that tobacco smoke has on the cilia. Cilia are the microscopic hairs located in the trachea that move rapidly back and forth to prevent pollutants and toxins from traveling into the vulnerable areas of the respiratory tract. The faster the cilia move, the more effective they are. However, tobacco smoke slows down the ciliary beat, diminishing the body’s ability to keep cancer-causing pollutants from entering the depths of the respiratory tract. Tests have shown though, that adding high levels of negative ions to the air accelerates the ciliary beat to normal levels (Soyka, 1991). Negative ions in the workplace.
Researchers in Russia (MINKH), Norway (HANS H. TJONN, M.D.), Israel (SULMAN, Ph.D), United States (ALEXANDER and FISHER, M.D.) and England (L. H. HAWKINS, Ph.D) are but a few who successfully linked the existence of air ion depletion to detrimental biological and behavioral effects in humans. Best known for studies relative to VDT operators was Leslie H. Hawkins, Ph.D., senior lecturer in human biology at the University of Surrey, Guildford, England. Dr. Hawkins conducted extensive double blind occupational studies to determine if positive and/or negative atmospheric ion levels could influence actual performance levels as well as attitudes among VDT operators. The results of Dr. Hawkins' studies were published in the book Health Hazards from VDTs as well as a number of industry trade journals. He demonstrated that a majority of VDT operators (5:1) reported feeling more comfortable and alert when the deionized environment in which they had been working was replenished with a natural level of negative ions (anions). His studies also revealed that replenished anionic air increased work efficiency and productivity on the part of VDT operators with a concurrent reduction in reported symptoms of nausea, stress, fatigue, dizziness, etc. “I hope I’m in group one.” In a study conducted in a Swiss textile mill, negative ionisers were placed in two, 60’ by 60’ rooms, each containing 22 employees. In one room, the negative ion electronic air cleaner was turned on during the course of the study. In the other room, the negative ion air purifier was permanently turned off, although the employees in this room were led to believe they were working in a room enriched by negative ions. During this six-month study, a total of 22 sick days were lost by employees working in the room in which the negative ioniser was operating. In the room where the machine was not operating, a total of 64 days were lost to sickness. During a month-long flu epidemic, the first group lost a total of 3 days to sickness, while the second group lost a total of 40 days to sickness (Stark, 1971). In a test involving a Swiss bank office, one group of 309 worked in a negative ion-treated environment. A second group of 362 worked in an untreated environment. Over the next APPENDIX D.
several months, for every day lost to respiratory illness (cold, flu, laryngitis, etc.) in group one, 16 days were lost to respiratory illness in group two (Soyka, 1991). “We liked them so much……”In a Surrey University study at the Norwich Union Insurance Group headquarters, eight negative ion generators were placed in the computer and data preparation section. Before the test, the research team spent a month compiling incident rates for complaints of sickness and headaches. During the test in which the negative ion air purification systems were in operation, incidents of sickness and headaches were reduced by 78%. After testing was completed, the Norwich Union opted to keep the negative ion electronic air cleaners (Hawkins, 1990). Negative ions help prevent migraine headaches.
Some migraine headaches originate when an overload of serotonin causes the diameter of blood vessels leading to the brain to dilate, and get wider in the brain. Consequently, blood flow increases, and pain receptors in the vessels are stretched, which leads to the excruciating pain associated with a migraine headache (Borne, 1998; others). In numerous tests and studies, negative ion treatment has proven to prevent the overproduction of serotonin, and therefore the subsequent migraine headaches (Kreuger, 1957; Soyka, 1991; Sulman, 1974). Negative ions are a natural anti-depressant.
…….and without the side effects! In a study conducted by Columbia University, 25 people with SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) sat in front of a negative ion air purifier for a half hour every morning for a month. Half the subjects were given a low level of negative ions, and the other half a high level. The higher level of negative ion treatment proved to be as effective against SAD as antidepressants, such as Prozac and Zolof, and without the side effects of these drugs (Finley, 1996). So impressed were Colombia that they actually registered a patent for the clinical treatment of depression with negative ions. More than 100 outpatients at a mental health clinic were exposed to negative ionisation for just 40 minutes per day, in a 1985 European research project. After only a few sessions, normal sleep returned in 80% of insomnia patients; 75% of headache patients had their pain disappear; over 50% of depressive patients reported a return to normal; and 100% of anxiety sufferers said their symptoms had disappeared. Serotonin is an important brain chemical related to mood and stress. Many antidepressant drugs, including Prozac, alter brain metabolism of Serotonin. So do negative ions, without the side-effects. APPENDIX D.
Positive ions, which are found in abundance in most indoor environments, cause an overproduction of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps the body deal with mental, emotional, and physiological stress. An overproduction initially causes hyperactivity, which rapidly leads to anxiety, and in some cases depression. Negative ion treatment has proven to be successful in reducing the overproduction of serotonin, and therefore successful in alleviating depression in some cases (Kreuger, 1957). Negative ions help combat fatigue.
In 1957, a study published in the Journal of General Physiology concluded that negative ions reduce the overproduction of serotonin, a neurohormone that leads to exhaustion, among other things, when overproduced (Kreuger, 1957). Negative ions enhance mental performance and concentration.
In 1984, a study was published in the "Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology" named, "Negative Air Ionisation improves Memory and Attention in Learning-Disabled and Mentally Retarded Children" The effectiveness of negative ions on mental performance was put to a test by researching the power of negative ions to improve the cognitive abilities of mentally handicapped children, as well as the abilities of normal children. Fourth graders were divided into three groups: normal, learning-disabled and mildly mentally retarded. The results were encouraging:- "half in each group were assigned randomly to an unmodified air-placebo condition under double-blind testing procedures. All of the children breathing negatively ionised air were superior in incidental memory. The action of negative ions on the neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be a mechanism by which negative ions produce such behavioural effects". The results showed that Negative Ions enhanced performance of the order of 8.4% for the normals, 23.6% for the learning disabled and 54.8% for the mildly retarded". In 1969, Dr. Sulman, head of the department of Applied Pharmacology at Hebrew University in Jerusalem at the time, brought in groups of people to spend some time in a room low in negative ions, and also in a room that contained an "overdose" of negative ions. While in each room, subjects were given word, figure, and symbol tests. They scored "significantly higher" on these tests when they were in the negative ion-enriched room. Plus, while in the negative ion room, they showed (via the electroencephalogram) a slower, stronger pulse rate of Alpha waves from the brain. Alpha wave rhythms are a measure of the brain’s activity and health. A slow, strong Alpha wave pulse rate indicates healthiness, calmness, and heightened alertness. When the subjects were in the negative APPENDIX D.
ion-deficient room, they showed signs of irritability and fatigue in addition to lower test performance (Sulman, 1974). The more difficult the better. In the study conducted by Surrey University at the Norwich Union Insurance Group headquarters, the employees in the computer and data preparation section that were exposed to high levels of negative ions showed a 28% increase in overall task performance. The more difficult the task, the more dramatic the improvement tended to be (Hawkins, 1990). Negative ions improve your driving
In 2001 Toyota carried out some research into the influence of negative ions on drivers’ mental stress and fatigue. The results showed conclusively that negative ions improved the fatigue levels and cognition of the drivers. In 1972 in Geneva, statistics showed that whenever there was a drastic change in the weather, and a consequent drop in the negative ion concentration in the air, traffic accident rates rose by more than 50% (Soyka, 1991). Negative ions enhance physical performance.
After World War II, the Russians extensively studied the relationship between negative ions and physical performance. A team of doctors, psychologists, and physicists observed and measured the performance of Olympic athletes in various conditions of negative ions levels. In each test of physical performance, the group that trained in facilities, and stayed in quarters high in negative ion concentration showed tremendous improvements in performance in comparison to the control group (Minkh, 1961). Negative Ions help us to sleep better.
In 1969, French researcher found that the overproduction of the neurohormone serotonin caused sleeplessness and nightmares. In using a negative ion electronic air cleaner to treat a group of people experiencing sleeping problems as a result of serotonin overproduction, he found that most of them were able to sleep better (Soyka, 1991). Negative ions aid in the treatment of burn patients.
In 1959, Dr. Kornbleuh treated a group of 138 burn victims at Northeastern General Hospital with negatived ionized air. Within this group, 57.3% suffered significantly less pain and discomfort, while healing more quickly and thoroughly. Only 22.5% of the control group (the group of burn victims treated through conventional methods rather than negative ionization) experienced similar improvements in the same time frame. APPENDIX D.
Statistically, the odds are 1,000 to 1 that these results were coincidental. This study, along with other follow up tests, were evidence enough for the hospital, which subsequently equipped its postoperative wards with negative ion generators. The effectiveness of negative ion treatment in these tests are likely a result of the extraordinary ability of negative ions to remove pollutants from the air, resulting in reduced infection and irritation of burn wounds (Kornbleuh, 1959). Negative Ions help prevent Tromboembolism (blood clots)
In an extensive double blind study of hundreds of post operative patients, carried out over a period of 28 months in a Jerusalem hospital, Prof. F.G. Sulman found that only one case of blood clotting occurred in the negatively ionised rooms compared to twelve (three fatal) in the non-ionised control rooms. Enhancing the overall negative charge of the blood is thought to be a significant factor in preventing the blood from aggregating (becoming “sticky”). (Sulman et.al. 1980)
The Elanra Ionisers – Key Details
The Elanra ionisers are manufactured in Australia and are the product of over 30 years
research and development by the worlds’ foremost expert in ioniser technology,
Mr Joshua Shaw.
They are unique because they are the only ionisers in the world to produce the “small”
breathable oxygen ions, replicating those found in nature. This is a patented process and
is recognised by the Australian government as a therapeutic device.
The Elanra products are also unique in that they provide the user with an ability to
regulate the ion output and frequency or vibration of the ions. This means that individuals
can tailor the ionisers to their own specific condition or needs. For example, they can be
set to 7.83Hz, know as the Schumann resonance or the Earths own brainwave, which is
ideal for relaxation and sleep. The models have up to 144 variable settings.
The Elanra MkII - Home/Office model
The MkII has 144 different programmable settings which control ion output, mobility,
concentration and frequency. Having this unprecedented level of control allows you to
program each Elanra for your specific therapeutic needs.
This ioniser is perfect for the home, desktop or surgery environment. When used at home
we normally recommend that the unit is placed beside the bed and used during sleep. The
MkII has a therapeutic range of 2 meters and an air cleaning capability of 75 sq.m.
The Elanra MkIII - Portable
Long distance travel, by road, sea, rail or air can be the most trying aspect of any holiday
or business trip. Tiring driving conditions, air conditioned vehicles and rooms and
pressurised aircraft cabins pumping out recycled air are just some of the hazards that have
to be faced.
The Portable unit is a real breakthrough for anyone on the move. It will run on mains
power anywhere in the world or alternatively on its own internal 9v battery. It can even
be wired to your vehicles electrical system for use whilst driving. On an aircraft you can
relax in the knowledge that you will contained in your own personal bubble of bacteria
free air. Studies also show that negative ions help to prevent DVT (blood clots).
The therapeutic range of the Portable is one meter and the air cleaning range is 25sq.m.
There are 32 different settings for controlling the ion output and frequency. These can be
set by the user and are detailed in an extensive instruction manual. The Portable also
comes with a spare set of needles and 9v battery.
ISSN 0003-6838, Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 625–630. © MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica” (Russia), 2006. Original Russian Text © A.P. Bonartsev, G.A. Bonartseva, T.K. Makhina, V.L. Myshkina, E.S. Luchinina, V.A. Livshits, A.P. Boskhomdzhiev, V.S. Markin, A.L. Iordanskii, 2006,published in Priklad