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Microsoft word - doping projekt final version.doc

Table of Contents
Part I. 30 The Institutional Framework. 30 A. International Co-Operation. 30 I. The Council of Europe’s Anti-Doping Convention . 30 1. The Council of Europe and the Anti-Doping Convention . 30 2. Aim of the Convention. 31 3. Main Provisions . 31 a) Definition and Scope . 31 b) Domestic Co-Ordination . 31 c) Measures to Restrict the Availability and Use of Doping Agents and Methods. 32 d) Laboratories . 33 e) Education . 33 f) Co-Operation with the Sports Organisations . 34 g) International Co-Operation . 35 h) Information . 35 i) Monitoring Group . 35 a) The Monitoring Group and its Competences. 36 b) Composition. 36 c) Monitoring Compliance . 37 d) Compliance and the Compliance with Commitments’ Project. 37 1. A Common Approach to Doping . 38 2. The Basis for a Future Community Anti-Doping Policy . 39 a) Public Health, Culture, Consumer Protection and Education, Development and Youth Policy. 40 b) Research and Technological Development . 40 c) Harmonisation of Legislation . 41 d) Social and Employment Policy . 41 e) Third Pillar of the EU. 42 3. Current Anti-Doping Activities and Legal Basis. 43 a) Opinion of the European Group for Ethics and New Technology . 43 b) EU Participation in the WADA. 43 c) Applying Community Instruments . 44 III. World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). 45 1. The Establishment of the WADA . 45 2. The Objective of the WADA . 45 3. The Composition of the WADA . 46 4. The Functions of the WADA . 46 5. The WADA Anti-Doping Code . 47 IV. International Anti-Doping Arrangement (IADA) . 48 1. Objective . 48 2. The IADA Quality Project . 48 I. The Organisation of Sport . 49 II. International (Global and Regional) Organisations . 49 a) Organisational Structure. 49 b) IOC . 50 c) NOCs. 50 2. Olympic Movement and the Fight against Doping. 50 3. Obligations of the NOCs . 51 4. International Federations. 51 III. National Federations, Clubs and/or Athletes. 51 IV. Court of Arbitration for Sport (ICAS/CAS) . 56 1. Introduction. 56 2. The Legal Framework for CAS Decisions . 57 a) Origin and History of the CAS . 57 b) Appellate Jurisdiction of the CAS. 58 aa) Arbitration Agreement . 58 bb) Time Limits and Exhaustion of Internal Remedies . 59 cc) Procedure and Award . 59 Part II. 61 Public Law . 61 A. Autonomy of Associations – A European Legal Comparison of Anti-Doping Rules in Sport . 61 1. The European Sport Model . 61 2. The Council of Europe’s Anti-Doping Convention. 62 II. Factual Outlines of European Sport Associations . 64 III. The Relationship between Sport and Politics. 65 IV. Law Relating to the Freedom of Association – Constitutional Provisions. 67 1. Citizen or Human Right . 68 2. Sport as a Constitutional Topic . 68 V. Individual Guarantees of the Freedom of Association . 69 1. Freedom to Form Associations/Freedom of Membership . 70 2. The Autonomous Establishment of an Internal Organisation. 71 3. Formation of Internal Codes of Conduct. 72 a) Statutes and By-Laws. 72 b) The Effectiveness of Association Rules for Individual Athletes . 73 c) Administrative Supervision . 73 4. Judicial Review of Association Measures . 74 a) Competence of Public Courts. 75 b) Balance of Interests . 75 VI. Recent Governmental Activities in the Fight against Doping. 77 VII. Conclusions . 78 Appendix (1) . 80 Appendix (2) . 81 Appendix (3) . 83 Appendix (4) . 86 Appendix (5) . 88 Appendix (6) . 89 Appendix (7) . 93 B. A Comparative Legal Analysis of Anti-Doping Activities – General Framework and Criminal Law Aspects . 95 I. Preliminary Remarks on Organisation and Methods of the Project. 95 II. General Topics/Basic Information . 96 1. Prominent Doping Cases. 96 2. ‘Catalysts’ in the Discussion on Doping . 97 3. General Objectives of Anti-Doping Policies/Protected Legal Values . 98 4. On the History of Anti-Doping Activities from the Legal Perspective . 99 5. General Legal Framework. 100 6. Doping Definitions in (State) Legislation . 102 7. Establishment of Doping Controls in (Competitive) Sports . 104 a) The Division of Responsibilities between ‘State’ and ‘Sport’. 104 b) Implementation of a Doping Ban and Doping Controls . 106 8. Anti-Doping Activities in Popular Sports . 108 III. Combating Doping by Means of Criminal Law . 108 1. Special Anti-Doping Provisions in Criminal Law. 108 a) Occurrence and Place of Regulation . 108 b) Sphere of Potential Offenders – Is the Doping Athlete also Punishable? . 109 c) Prohibited Acts in Criminal Doping Provisions . 111 aa) Elements of Distribution-Related Offences. 111 bb) Elements of Doping Offences Related to the Application of Doping Agents . 113 cc) Application of Masking Methods by Third Parties. 113 d) Substances/Objects Covered in the Offence. 114 e) Exceptions from Prohibition for Therapeutic Purposes. 116 f) Must the Offence Bring about a Particular Result?. 117 g) Subjective Element of the Offence. 117 h) Punishability of Attempted Doping. 119 i) Parties to Crime . 119 j) Aggravating Elements. 120 aa) More General Formulations . 120 bb) Special Formulations . 121 cc) Mitigating Elements . 122 k) ‘Preliminary’ Offences/Flanking Offences . 122 l) Further Prerequisites for Punishability? (e.g., Lodging of a Complaint) . 123 m) Relation of the Special Criminal Doping Offences to Disciplinary Measures of the Sport Associations – with Particular Reference to the Criminalisation of Personal Use by the Athlete. 123 n) Threatened Sanctions . 124 aa) Basic Doping Offence, Third Party Offender . 124 bb) Basic Elements of the Offence, Athlete as Offender (‘Personal Use’) . 125 cc) Aggravated Forms of Commission. 125 dd) Mitigated, ‘Preliminary’ and Negligent Offences . 126 ee) Supplementary Punishments and Consequences . 126 ff) Disciplinary Measures. 127 2. Drug Offences and Doping . 128 3. Importance of General Criminal Offences such as Bodily Harm a) Offences Protecting Intangible Individual Legal Interests. 130 b) Offences Protecting Financial Interests. 132 c) Miscellaneous Offences, Including Those outside of Central Criminal Law, with Significance for Anti-Doping Activities . 133 4. Special Offences Applying to Physicians and Pharmacists; Physicians’ 5. Punishment of Clubs . 136 6. Aspects of International Criminal Law . 136 a) Foreign Citizens/Domestic Offence . 136 b) Domestic Citizens/Foreign Offence . 137 c) Internet . 138 7. Procedural Issues/Prosecution Regulations . 138 a) Investigative Measures . 138 b) Cooperation of the Investigative Law Enforcement Agencies with Sports Institutions. 140 c) Relationship Between Criminal Proceedings and Disciplinary Proceedings Anchored in Sports Organisations . 140 IV. Anti-Doping Measures outside of Criminal Law. 142 1. State and State-Sponsored Anti-Doping Measures outside 2. ‘Supplementary’ Measures of Organized Sports to Combat Doping a) IOC. 146 b) Council of Europe . 146 c) European Union. 146 d) United Nations . 147 e) Additional Forms of Cooperation at the State Level . 147 V. Outlook . 148 VI. Results and Conclusions . 148 1. Results. 149 2. Conclusions/Recommendations . 151 Part III . 161 Sport Rules and Regulations . 161 A. Introduction. 161 B. Aspects Researched . 162 I. Definition of Doping (Description of the Doping Offence). 162 1. Introduction and Points of Departure . 162 2. The Offence of the Use of Doping . 166 a) The Description of the Offence of the Use of Doping. 166 aa) Doping is the Use of Substances and Methods for a Specific Purpose. 166 bb) Doping is the Use of Certain, Specified Substances and Methods. 171 cc) Doping is the Use of Certain, Specified Substances and Methods for a Specific Purpose. 178 dd) Doping is the Presence of a Prohibited Substance in the Body of an Athlete . 181 ee) Intentional Doping. 187 ff) Masking Agents and Methods . 189 gg) The Aim of the Use of a Prohibited Substance: Doping or Medical Care? . 191 hh) Possession of a Prohibited Substance. 194 ii) Criminal Conviction . 194 jj) No Change of Address. 195 kk) Elastic Provisions. 195 b) Ancillary Doping Infractions (Concerning the Use of Doping) . 196 aa) The Failure to Report to Doping Control and the Refusal to Submit to Doping Control . 196 bb) The Admission to Having Used a Prohibited Substance or Method. 200 3. Offences other than the Use of Doping . 203 a) Third-Party Assistance in the Use of Doping . 203 b) The Doping of Horses . 209 c) The Illegal Trade in Prohibited Doping Substances . 212 4. The Doping Substances and Methods . 216 aa) Doping Substances which are Prohibited Unconditionally. 216 bb) Doping Substances which are Prohibited Conditionally . 216 II. The Purpose of the Ban on Doping (Arguments against the Use of Doping) . 221 1. Introduction. 221 2. The Use of Doping Leads to an Unfair Advantage . 223 a) Thesis 1: Doping Enhances the Sport Performance. 223 b) Thesis 2: Athletes Using Doping Gain an Unfair Advantage. 224 3. The Use of Doping Endangers the Athletes’ Health. 226 4. The Use of Doping is Contrary to Fairness . 229 5. The Use of Doping is Contrary to Ethics . 231 6. The Use of Doping is Contrary to the Rules of Sport. 233 7. Conclusion . 234 III. List of Prohibited Substances and Methods . 235 1. Introduction. 235 2. List of Substances in the Olympic Movement Anti-Doping Code . 235 1. Substances Occurring on Lists other than that of the IOC. 242 II. Doping Control outside of a Competition Context. 250 1. Introduction. 250 2. Competence to Conduct Out-of-Competition Controls . 255 a) The Division of Powers within the International Federations – Controls by International Federations . 255 aa) Powers of the Internal Organs . 255 bb) Selection of National Federations by International Federations. 257 cc) The Duty of the National Federations to Co-Operate . 257 dd) The Duty of Individual Athletes to Co-Operate . 259 ee) Applicable Rules . 259 ff) Out-of-Competition Controls by Third Parties. 259 gg) The Co-Operation Between the International Federations and the WADA. 260 b) The Division of Powers in the International Context – Controls by National Federations. 260 aa) Appointment by an International Federation . 261 bb) Own Initiative of a National Federation. 261 cc) Request to another National Federation for Controls . 262 dd) Applicable Rules. 262 ee) Duty to Inform the International Federation. 263 3. Doping Substances and Methods subject to Controls. 263 4. Cost of Out-of-Competition Doping Controls. 266 5. The Organisation of the Out-of-Competition Controls. 267 a) General . 267 b) The Selection of the Athletes . 268 aa) Athletes who Wish to Resume Competing after their Sanction Period . 269 bb) Athletes who Wish to Resume Competing after Retirement. 270 cc) Other Selection Criteria. 270 dd) The Selection Is Confidential. 272 ee) The Doping Control Officers. 272 ff) Appointment of Doping Control Officers . 273 c) The Whereabouts of the Athlete. 274 d) Contact with the Athlete. 276 aa) Two Options: an Appointment or an Unannounced Visit. 276 bb) Another Possibility for Making an Appointment . 277 cc) After an Appointment has been Made . 277 dd) Involvement of the National Federation. 278 ee) The Athlete’s Whereabouts cannot be Traced . 279 e) The Actual Out-of-Competition Control . 280 aa) The Athlete is not Present at the Address Supplied . 280 bb) Identification of the Doping Control Officer . 281 cc) Identification of the Athlete. 283 dd) Respect for the Athlete’s Privacy. 283 ee) The Refusal to Submit to a Doping Control . 285 ff) Supplying a Urine Sample. 287 gg) Supplying a Blood Sample. 289 hh) Storage and Dispatch of the Samples. 289 ii) Analysis of the Samples. 290 jj) Recapitulation. 290 6. Sanctions . 291 7. Deviation from the Rules . 292 III. Fundamental Rights of the Athlete and Procedural Mental Guarantees. 294 1. Introduction. 294 2. Human Rights Treaties. 295 3. Disciplinary Law in Sport . 295 4. The Various Fundamental Rights. 298 a) The Right to be Informed of the Charges . 299 aa) At International Level . 299 bb) At National Level. 300 b) Open Court. 302 c) Confidentiality. 303 d) The Right to Inspection of the File. 303 e) The Right to Appear in Person/The Right to be Heard. 304 aa) At International Level . 304 bb) At National Level. 306 f) Impartiality of the Tribunal. 309 g) The Right to Representation. 310 aa) At International Level . 310 bb) At National Level. 310 h) The Right to be Assisted by an Interpreter . 312 i) The Right to Submit Evidence . 313 aa) Reversal of the Burden of Proof . 315 bb) Distribution of the Burden of Proof with regard to Strict Liability . 316 j) The Right to Call Witnesses and/or Experts. 319 aa) At International Level . 319 bb) At National Level. 320 k) The Right to Conduct the Doping Trial in Writing . 321 aa) At International Level . 321 bb) At National Level. 322 cc) Last Word. 323 l) Reasoned and Public Decision . 324 m) Remedies at Law. 325 aa) Opposing a Judgment . 325 bb) Right of Appeal. 326 cc) Cassation . 329 dd) Appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). 330 5. The Anti-Doping Convention of the Council of Europe and 1. Sanctions and the World Doping Conference . 333 2. Sanctions for Individual Athletes in Cases of ‘Hard Doping’ . 337 a) Introduction . 337 b) The Various Types of Sanctions . 338 aa) 1st Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Life-Long Ban – FISA, ICF, FIE, IWF, IJF, FILA, IBU, ITTF, FITA, FIVB, FIBT, WCF, IIHF and FIL . 338 (1) FISA . 339 (2) ICF . 340 (3) FIE . 340 (4) IWF . 341 (5) IJF . 342 (6) FILA. 342 (7) IBU . 343 (8) ITTF . 343 (9) FITA. 344 (10) FIVB . 344 (11) FIBT. 344 (12) WCF. 345 (13) IIHF . 345 (14) FIL . 346 bb) 1st Offence: Suspension of 1 Year, 2nd Offence: Life-Long Ban – ITF, ATP, WTA . 347 cc) 1st Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Minimum Suspension of 3 Years –ISU. 348 dd) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Life-Long Ban – AIBA, FIG, FINA and ITU . 348 (1) AIBA . 348 (2) FIG . 349 (3) FINA . 349 ee) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 4 Years – IHF. 351 ff) 1st Offence: Minimum Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Life-Long Ban – IAAF, FIBA and WTF. 351 (1) IAAF . 351 (2) FIBA . 352 (3) WTF . 353 gg) 1st Offence: Minimum Suspension of 4 Years, 2nd Offence: Life-Long Ban – IPC and FINA. 353 hh) 1st Offence: Flexible Ban, 2nd Offence: Flexible Ban, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – UCI and ISF. 355 ii) 1st Offence: Flexible Ban, 2nd Offence: Flexible Ban, 3rd Offence: Flexible Ban – FIH. 357 jj) 1st Offence: Maximum Life-Long Ban – FISA, FIFA and FIS . 359 (1) FISA . 359 (2) FIFA. 359 (3) FIS. 359 kk) No Malice: Suspension of 1 to 3 Months + Fine, Malice: Suspension of 3 Months to 2 Years + Fine – FEI. 360 ll) 1st Offence: Ban on Participation in One or Several Competitions; Fine up to US-$ 100,000; Suspension from all Competitions for at least Two Years, 2nd Offence: Ban on Participation in any Competition; Fine up to US-$ 1,000,000; Suspension from all Competitions for 4 Years to Life – IOC . 360 3. Sanctions for Individual Athletes in Cases of ‘Soft Doping’ . 364 a) Introduction . 364 b) The Various Types of Sanctions . 364 aa) 1st Offence: Advice, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 3 Months, 3rd Offence: Suspension of 1 Year – ITF. 364 bb) 1st Offence: Public Warning, 2nd Offence: Minimum Suspension of 2 Years, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – IAAF . 365 cc) 1st Offence: Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 1 Year, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – ITF . 366 dd) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Maximum Suspension of 2 Years, 3rd Offence: Possible Life-Long Ban – FIG and FINA. 366 ee) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 90 Days, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 2 Years – ITU . 367 ff) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 3 Months + Fine, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 6 Months to 1 Year + Fine, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban + Fine – UCI. 367 gg) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 3rd Offence: Minimum Suspension of 3 Years – ISU. 369 hh) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 2 Years (Possibly Longer), 3rd Offence: Ban of 5 Years to Life – FIH . 369 ii) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – IOC, IBF, FISA, IBA, FIBA, ICF, UIPM, WTF, ITTF, FITA, FIVB, ISAF, WCF, IIHF and FIL . 370 (1) IOC . 370 (2) IBF . 371 (3) FISA. 371 (4) IBA . 371 (5) FIBA . 372 (6) ICF . 372 (7) UIPM . 372 (8) WTF . 373 (9) ITTF . 373 (10) FITA. 373 (11) FIVB . 374 (12) ISAF. 374 (13) WCF. 375 (14) IIHF . 375 (15) FIL . 376 jj) 1st Offence: Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – FIE, IJF, FIBT and IBU. 376 (1) FIE . 376 (2) IJF . 377 (3) FIBT. 377 (4) IBU . 378 kk) 1st Offence: Suspension of 6 Months, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – IWF . 378 ll) 1st Offence: Maximum Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Minimum Suspension of 3 Years, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – ISF . 378 mm) 1st Offence: Suspension of 3 Months, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 4 Years, 3rd Offence: Life-Long Ban – IPC . 379 nn) 1st Offence: Possible Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Possible Disqualification for Life – AIBA . 379 oo) Malice: Suspension of 3 Months to 2 Years + Fine, No Malice: Suspension of 1 Month and 3 Months + Fine – FEI. 380 pp) Discretionary Determination of the Sanction – FIFA, ISSF and FIS . 381 (1) FIFA . 381 (2) ISSF . 381 (3) FIS. 382 qq) 1st Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Suspension of 4 Years – IHF. 382 rr) 1st Offence: Suspension of 2 Years, 2nd Offence: Life-Long Ban – FILA. 383 ss) Doping: Warning + Ban + Fine + Suspension of 1 to 3 Months, Intentional Doping: Ban + Fine + Suspension of 2 to 8 Years – IOC . 383 4. Primary and Secondary Team Sanctions . 385 a) Primary Team Sanctions . 385 b) Secondary Team Sanctions . 385 aa) The Match is Declared Lost . 386 bb) Disqualification of the Entire Team . 387 cc) Other Sport Sanctions for the Entire Team. 389 dd) Lack of Sanctions for the Entire Team. 390 5. Proportionality and Restraint of Trade . 391 a) Proportionality. 391 b) Restraint of Trade. 393 a) Disqualification . 395 b) Return of Prizes, Medals, etc. . 399 aa) First Offence. 401 bb) Second Offence. 401 cc) Third Offence . 402 aa) Suspension from Membership . 403 bb) Ban from Representation . 404 cc) Termination of Funding. 404 dd) Suspension in Specified Areas . 404 ee) Sanctions according to Category . 405 c) Discretionary Powers and Flexible Sanctions . 405 aa) Full Discretionary Powers . 405 bb) Flexible Sanctions. 407 V. Adoption and Mutual Recognition of Doping Sanctions . 410 1. Introduction. 410 2. Olympic Movement Lausanne Agreement 1994. 411 3. The Olympic Movement Anti-Doping Code 2000 . 412 4. IOC Olympic Charter. 412 5. The IOC Medical Code . 413 6. World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) . 414 7. Newest National Anti-Doping Legislation . 415 8. The Relevant Regulations of the 34 IFs . 416 (1) International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF). 416 (2) International Rowing Federation (Fisa). 420 (3) International Badminton Federation (IBF) . 421 (4) International Baseball Association (IBA). 421 (5) International Basketball Federation (FIBA) . 421 (6) International Amateur Boxing Association/ International Canoe Federation (ICF) . 422 (7) International Cycling Union (UCI) . 423 (8) International Equestrian Federation (FEI). 424 (9) International Fencing Federation (FIE) . 424 (10) International Association Football Federation (FIFA) . 425 (11) International Gymnastics Federation (FIG). 426 (12) International Weightlifting Federation (IWF) . 426 (13) International Handball Federation (IHF). 427 (14) International Hockey Federation (FIH) . 427 (15) International Judo Federation (IJF) . 428 (16) International Wrestling Federation (FILA) . 430 (17) International Amateur Swimming Federation (FINA) . 431 (18) International Union for Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) . 432 (19) International Biathlon Union (IBU) . 433 (20) International Softball Federation (ISF) . 433 (21) International Taekwondo Federation (WTF). 433 (22) International Tennis Federation (ITF) . 434 (23) International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF). 434 (24) International Sport Shooting Federation (ISSF-UIT) . 434 (25) International Archery Federation (FITA) . 435 (26) International Triathlon Union (ITU) . 435 (27) International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) . 436 (28) International Sailing Federation (ISAF) . 436 (29) International Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Federation (FIBT) . 437 (30) World Curling Federation (WCF) . 437 (31) International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) . 438 (32) International Luge Federation (FIL). 439 (33) International Skating Union (ISU) . 439 (34) International Ski Federation (FIS). 439 B. Results of a Case Study on Doping in Sport. 442 I. Introduction . 442 II. Results. 444 III. Summary. 468 IV. Conclusions . 470 Appendix. 471 A. Medical Limits (Cut-Off Limits in Doping Control). 499 I. Introduction . 499 II. Medical and Scientific Background . 500 1. Drugs and the Human Body . 500 2. Doping Substances With Cut-Off Limits . 502 a) Caffeine . 503 b) Ephedrine . 504 c) Cannabis. 504 d) Morphine. 505 e) Testosterone-Epitestosterone (T/E) Ratio. 505 f) Epitestosterone. 506 g) Salbutamol . 506 h) Nandrolone. 506 i) Hematocrit and Haemoglobin . 508 j) Conclusions. 509 3. Contamination by Forbidden Substances . 510 a) Nutritional Supplements. 510 b) Other Sources. 511 4. Analytical Background. 513 5. Conclusions. 515 1. The Use of Limits in Other Fields of Law. 516 aa) Procedure of Setting up Cut-Off Limits . 516 bb) Advantages and Disadvantages of Cut-Off Limits. 518 b) Food Law . 519 c) Road Traffic Law . 519 d) Conclusions. 520 2. The Use of Limits in Doping Control. 520 a) Analysis of Current Cut-Off Limits. 520 b) Possible Limits for Forbidden Substances . 521 c) Suitability of Substance Classes for Cut-Off Limits. 522 (1) Substances With Short Effect . 523 (2) Substances With Long-Lasting Effect. 523 bb) Endogenous Substances . 524 cc) Body Parameters . 525 1. Standard of Control . 526 2. Suitability of the Current Cut-Off Limits . 528 a) Evidential Value of a Positive Doping Sample . 528 b) Consequences of the Suitability of Cut-Off Limits . 530 aa) Endogenous Production. 531 bb) Therapeutical Application. 532 cc) Contaminations. 533 3. Implementation of Effect-Related Limits. 534 a) Equal Opportunities. 535 b) Protection of Health . 535 c) Image of Sport. 536 d) Conclusions. 537 4. Reasonableness of the Current Cut-Off Limits . 537 5. Formal Aspects Concerning Cut-Off Limits . 539 6. Conclusions. 541 1. Expected Problems with Cut-Off Limits . 542 2. Alternative Approaches. 542 a) Individual Limits . 543 b) Steroid Profile . 543 c) Drug Diary . 544 d) Health Rules. 545 I. The Definitions of Doping and the Description of the Doping Offence . 548 1. ‘Use’-Infractions . 549 2. ‘Non-Use’-Infractions . 551 II. Why Combat Doping? The Arguments . 552 III. List of Prohibited Substances and Methods . 553 IV. Out-of-Competition Testing . 554 V. The Fundamental Rights of Athletes in Doping Trials. 554 VI. System of Sanctions. 557 1. Sanctions for Individual Athletes in Cases of ‘Hard Doping’ . 557 2. Sanctions for Individual Athletes in Cases of ‘Soft Doping’ . 559 VII. Mutual Recognition of Sanctions . 561 VIII. Inquiry into the Application and Interpretation of the Sports Rules Part IV . 563 Analysis of Doping Cases of the Court of Arbitration for Sport . 563 A. Introduction. 563 I. Historical Introduction and the CAS Today . 563 1. How Does the CAS Function? . 564 2. Ordinary Cases. 564 3. Appeal Cases. 565 4. General Procedure. 565 5. Ad Hoc Division Cases . 566 6. Legal Status of CAS Awards . 568 7. Challenges to CAS Awards. 568 II. Preliminary Matters Concerning this Study of the Appellate Jurisdiction 1. Methodology . 570 2. Practical Matters . 571 III. A Note on the List of the Court of Arbitration for Sport’s Doping Appellate Awards and Opinions Considered in the Course of this Study . 573 B. Aspects of the CAS Jurisprudence Researched . 579 II. The Doping Awards and Opinions in ‘Digested’ Form. 580 1. Definition of Doping (The Description of the Doping Offence) . 618 2. The Purpose of the Ban on Doping (Arguments Against the Use 3. List of Prohibited Substances and Methods . 622 a) Exceptional Cases . 622 b) Cases of Inadvertent Ingestion . 623 c) Masking Cases . 624 d) General Doping Cases. 624 e) Horse Cases. 626 4. Doping Control and Testing in and out of Competition . 627 5. Evidential Rules . 627 6. Fundamental Rights of the Athlete and Procedural Guarantees . 628 a) Basic Procedural Failure . 629 b) Benefit of the Doubt. 629 c) Proportionality. 630 d) Due Process and De Novo Cases . 630 a) Holding to the Rules. 632 b) The Lex Mitior . 632 c) Proportionality. 633 8. Competence to Impose Sanctions. 633 9. Mutual Recognition of Sanctions . 634 Appendix. 638 Part V. 659 General Conclusions and Recommendations . 659 A. Statutory Law (Constitutional Issues, National Legislation) . 661 1. Constitutional Issues: Autonomy of Associations . 661 2. National Legislation: Country Reports. 662 3. Constitutional Issues: Autonomy of Associations . 665 4. National Legislation: Country Reports. 665 B. Sports Law (Law of the Sports Associations). 667 1. The Description of the Doping Offence . 668 2. The Purposes of the Ban on Doping (Arguments Against the Use 3. List of Prohibited Substances and Methods . 669 4. Doping Control Outside of a Competition Context . 669 5. Fundamental Rights of the Athlete and Procedural Guarantees . 670 6. System of Sanctions . 670 7. Adoption and Mutual Recognition of Doping Sanctions. 671 8. Application and Interpretation of the Sports Rules on Doping (Case Medical Limits (Cut-off Limits in Doping Control)). 671 1. The Description of the Doping Offence . 672 2. The Purpose of the Ban on Doping . 672 3. List of Prohibited Substances and Methods . 672 4. Doping Control Outside of a Competition Context . 673 5. Fundamental Rights of the Athlete and Procedural Guarantees . 673 6. System of Sanctions . 673 7. Adoption and Mutual Recognition of Doping Sanctions. 673 8. Application and Interpretation of the Sports Rules and Regulations on Medical Limits (Cut-off-Limits in Doping Control) . 674 C. Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) . 675 I. Conclusions . 675 II. Recommendations . 676 D. Main Recommendations Concerning Harmonisation. 676 I. Statutory Law . 676 II. Sports Law and CAS. 677 Literature and Documents . 679 E. Literature . 679 F. Documents . 699

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