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Get plastic out of your diet-wordGet Plastic Out Of Your Diet
our foods—plastics, pesticides, growth hormones, irradiation, and microwave. This is clear from the mass of expert and citizen testimony against such technologies that In the interests of a healthy population, we regulatory agencies bend over backwards and have decided to re-print this well jump through flaming hoops to please their researched and irrefutable article on why there is no such thing as a "safe" plastic. Safe alternatives exist for all applications, There is a worst plastic for any purpose— so the less plastic in our lives, the better, polyvinylchloride (vinyl or PVC). However, especially as plastic from oil is not a there is no best plastic to contain food or drink. It is my hope that this article will clarify this viewpoint. By the time you’ve finished You Are What You Eat
reading, you should be closer to forming your When you eat or drink things that are stored in plastic, taste it, smell it, wear it, sit on it, and so on, plastic is incorporated into you. In fact, the plastic gets into the food and food gets Plastic is used in contact with nearly all into the plastic and you. So, quite literally, you are what you eat. . . drink. . . and breathe— containers are now coated with plastic plastic! These plastics are called "Food Contact Substances," Until April 2002, they commercial and organic produce to preserve were called "Indirect Food Additives." The its freshness. Plastic is even used to irrigate, new name is cleansed of the implication that mulch, wrap, and transport organic food. plastic gets into your food. In spite of this Organic bananas now come from wholesalers with a sticky plastic wrapping the cut stem to protect the bananas from a black mold. The mold is controlled on non-organic bananas by According to Dr. George Pauli, Associate dipping the cut ends in a fungicide. Chiquita, Director of Science Policy, FDA Office of Food Dole, and so on would reveal only that it’s a Additive Safety, the regulations mandated in “food grade plastic,” which means that it 1958 assume that all plastics migrate toxins into the food they contact. Migration is the since it has a sticky feel to it, I suspect it either movement of free toxins from plastic into the substances they contact—in this case it’s your characteristics act as a fungicide. Either way, food. The manufacturer must “prove” that the if it is or acts as a fungicide, the EPA migrations fall within an acceptable range. I regulates it as a pesticide, which fungicides agree with the assumption of migration from are considered a subset of.  In a way, this all plastics, but I find a critical disparity is similar to the regulation of corn that is between the level of science employed by the genetically engineered to carry the toxic bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in every knowledge regarding the levels at which they cell. Rather than the FDA regulating it as a migrate and the effects they can have. In food, the EPA regulates it as a pesticide. Incredible as it may seem, they see our food extremely low concentrations. There is also a manufacturer to submit its own testing to the According to the FDA scientist I spoke with, FDA as proof of anything. We invite the fox it’s a proprietary formula that he doesn’t know into the henhouse and are surprised when about and would offer nothing beyond that. there’s nothing left but eggshells and feathers. Disclosure of proprietary information is a criminal offense. All plastic manufacturers The amount of migration and corresponding hide behind trade secrets. This is true with toxicological effects are highly disputed topics, nearly all consumer products. It is quite impossible to know the chemical makeup of acquiesced to industry in its regulation of any plastic without paying a substantial technologies that are used in the production of amount of money for an independent lab analysis. How is it made?
lifecycle analysis would reveal that the long- In a nutshell, plastic is made by combining effects at the local and global scales far monomers into polymers under great heat and outweigh the benefits realized by the use of pressure in a process called polymerization. Each manufacturer has its own proprietary formula for each plastic. And each uses a What's so bad about plastic?
variety of additives such as plasticizers for flexibility, UV filters for protection from sunlight, antistatic agents, flame-retardants, colorants, antioxidants, and more. Heavy polymerization process binds the constituent metals such as cadmium, mercury, and lead chemicals together so perfectly that the resulting plastic is completely nontoxic and chemicals used to facilitate production such passes through us without a hitch. In spite of as mold releases, and countless other toxic plastics industry disinformation, the chemicals regularly added to plastic consumer polymerization process is never 100% perfect. goods without our knowledge or approval. Logically then, there are always toxicants Many of the products and byproducts of the available for migration into the many things intermediary steps of plastics production are they contact—your food, air, water, skin, and used in other plastics or industrial processes so on. Both the FDA and the industry know and products such as pesticides or fertilizer. this. However, because of many millions of For holistic thinkers, the mention of plastics and pesticides in the same sentence should relations work, consumers are educated to begin an informative thought process, while keeping in mind that they all have complete The additives utilized are not bound to the already imperfect plastic, leaving them quite The True Cost of Plastic
free to migrate. One quick example: without a plasticizer additive, PVC would be rigid. The Plastic is ubiquitous in our lives because it is plasticizer resides between the molecules of convenient and relatively inexpensive. It is the PVC, acting as a lubricant that allows advertised as safe and that it saves lives. those molecules to slide by each other, and Its safety is based on outdated science and thus flex. Many containers used for food or regulations. And while it saves lives in the water are made of it. Even Barbie dolls are short run, the record against plastic is looking made of it. The plasticizer migrates out from day one. And as it ages, the migration can Its convenience comes from being lightweight and its ability to absorb impact shock without Plastics [polymers], their additives and other breaking, which on its own merit, is hard to argue with. It comes in an endless range of extremely low concentrations. In fact, some colors and finishes, is pliable, and is easily are significantly more toxic at extremely low formed and molded. Most would say it's a perfect material. Right? Here’s where the bad concentrations, which is contrary to the FDA scientist’s paradigm that, “The dose makes the poison,” meaning that the higher the Its inexpensiveness is the result of a large concentration, the more toxic something is. It portion of the costs associated with its life— production, use and disposal—being put onto Paracelsus, an alchemist who wrote in the society as a whole. This unsolicited financial 16th century that, “Alle Ding sind Gift und nichts ohn Gift; alein die Dosis macht das ein increased taxes to finance municipal curbside Ding kein Gift ist” [all things are poison and not without poison; only the dose makes a incineration, higher health care and insurance thing not a poison”]. It’s 500 years later costs—as result of the incineration polluting and that assumption of Paracelsus is still the the air, water, and food. I’ll give much more basis for the many regulations. Except on detail on the negative health effects later, but for now, suffice to say that a full and truthful academic labs, plastics are not explored for busting shells they fired being distributed harm or regulated in any meaningful way. across the Gulf Region as an aerosol smaller than the size of a virus. Each one of us is Extremely Low Doses and Synergy
exposed to extremely low levels of radiation from the nuclear power plants scattered about Since it is known that all plastics migrate into food, it behooves us to look for the evidence at meaningful levels of detection, at and below On the home front, even the products in our single-digit parts-per-trillion (ppt) or ng/kg. day-in and day-out humdrum lives are coated Extremely low doses are especially relevant because they can upset the natural balance of chemicals that can interact synergistically with each other. The list is endless but includes report of an EPA workshop in 1996, endocrine beauty products such as nail polish, eyeliner, disruptors (EDs) are external agents that cleaning products such as tile and carpet transport, metabolism, binding, action or cleaners, air fresheners that are solid, plug-in, elimination of natural hormones in the body or spray. Even gas and diesel engine exhaust responsible for maintaining internal balances are included. Quite frankly, the FDA doesn’t even consider all sources of a chemical in its review of industry product applications. Current knowledge of EDs turns the work of Consider that there between 87,000 to 100,00 chemicals in commercial production. In total, century—upside down. Some chemicals can be more toxic at extremely low doses than organic and inorganic substances registered exposure can be much more relevant than its registry. Only eight months ago, there dose. Most vulnerable times are in periods of were 1,112,474 fewer chemicals in the CAS rapid growth, such as those in embryo and registry. They are regulated and tested in children right up to puberty. They can be what I would call a “don’t look—don’t see” exposed in the womb and before conception, style of science that boggles the minds of if sperm and/or ovum are contaminated. The those who look just a little below the surface maladies of the children of Gulf War veterans of the happy little corporate-science myths. The focus is on the wonders of plastic with a purposeful avoidance of the painfully evident Synergy is an important issue that is mostly effects. Using the more conservative 87,000 debunk the idea that low dose synergy is real. possible synergistic effect on toxicity. For chemicals from plastics can be potentiated by the purposes of this article, that number is synergy. A synergy can occur between two or roughly 1 with 87,000 zeros after it. Even if more chemicals that elevate the combination’s researchers had the time and money to test toxicity to hundreds of times greater than that them all, they still wouldn’t know what to look of the individual chemicals. Besides plastics, other household chemicals can be part of a addition, one must account for the uniqueness environment each lives in, which further Nuclear radiation can also severely damage the endocrine system. According to Dr. Ernest Radiological Physics at the University of So, bottled water is safe and healthy, right? Water Stored in Plastic
toxicants is well documented. Gulf War vets (I and II) were and still are being exposed Water bottles are be made from various types to depleted uranium from the tons of armour- of plastic— polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polypropylene (PP), of canned food, it is sterilized in the can at 250°F for 1 hour. Because heat increases its migration, this is an especially large exposure reiterate, they all migrate to some degree. I plastics grow old, BPA and other chemicals will focus on just one chemical that migrates are released. But even when they are new products with high use and sales profiles. The Code of Federal Regulations section on Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a monomer used in the PC plastics allows for migratory chemicals in synthesis of PC plastics, epoxy resins, and the hundreds of parts-per-million (ppm) range composites, as well as a heat stabilizer in as well as a percentage of the plastic’s total PVC. The list of products containing BPA is weight to migrate. While concentrations of long. Some rigid containers such as water and ppm and higher are relevant, there is vast baby bottles are made of PC. The popular area of exposure that falls well below the Nalgene® water bottles are made of Lexan® FDA’s radar in the parts-per-trillion range and brand PC. In the medical industry, it is used lower. Testing methods are available, but the for syringes, containers, lenses, and dental cost would be far greater. Industry, being products. Keep in mind that the FDA only responsible for testing, protests madly at the regulates plastics in contact with foods and idea that these concentrations are relevant. If not any of the other exposures a person might the table were turned and the burden of proof demand the most up to date testing methods. approves plastics for specific uses rather than for individual chemicals, BPA is not explicitly regulated. It is important to note that all tested water from five-gallon PC plastic exposures, no matter what origin, are relevant bottles for BPA, They found from 0.5 ppb to and cumulative. Even other chemicals that act 11 ppb in water samples from eight of the ten in the body in similar ways can be part of the from 5-gallon PC jugs. After industry spin- total effect. The body’s natural defenses try to breakdown toxins as they enter. These are flawed, not many regulatory red flares within called metabolites and can be significantly the FDA. This type of industry disinformation is standard operating procedure. Most times, the statements made could be compared it to Dentists like to coat children’s teeth with a child calling another derogatory names, dental sealants that harden (polymerize) hoping that the recipient will become persona within the mouth, so the exposure to BPA is non grata with the other children. However, large enough to have biologic effects. Just concentrations of BPA that were found are through the skin within the mouth. When it comes to dental solutions without plastic, the bottles at worrisome levels. CU advised its choices are limited. And I must say that I am extremely frustrated by the situation. One “dispos[ing] of polycarbonate baby bottles and orthodontist I spoke with creates retainers replac[ing] them with bottles made of glass or from metal wire that can replace the standard polyethylene, an opaque, less-shiny plastic polycarbonate ones. But when it comes to that does not leach bisphenol-A.” That tooth replacement, even the material dentists advice attracted the wrath of the plastics call ceramic has a polymer matrix. Gold caps industry. But I will go further to advise readers or crowns are an excellent choice, but they not to serve or store any food—liquid or solid, too are glued into place with a volatile water-based or fatty, hot or cold—in any polymer. By far, the best alternative is to keep your teeth healthy by brushing and flossing regularly, and by eating a healthy diet. In April 2003, a study was published about BPA accidentally killing mice that had been Food and beverages cans are coated with a held in polycarbonate cages a lab. It was BPA-containing plastic. During the processing experiment that heated yeast in PC flasks to find out if the yeast produced estrogens. It intelligence, memory, learning, and behavior, was discovered that BPA from the PC flasks skeleton, body size and shape, significant was the material that was estrogenic, and that it competed with the natural estrogen in a rat’s epididymal weight and a longer anogenital body.  I asked one noted researcher why distance, prostate cancer,  reduced labs still use plastics considering what it has sperm count, both physical and mental aspects of sexuality, it may have something to and is hormonally active. The response was, do with obesity, and so many more that a “What are we supposed to do, go back to separate article is required to list them. In glass?” The tone of voice made it seem as if I other words, if the fetus lives, any one or had advised going back in time to live in the many parts of its body can be permanently Stone Age. This is the state of what is still affected. The problems may become evident amazingly called science. There is a lack of reason and logic that goes well beyond what I knew possible before I began looking at the Alzheimer's disease generally occurs after the many aspects of this technology. Truth is age of 50. In those afflicted with it, areas of sought, but the obvious is knocked to the brain become smaller with cell death and the ground and trampled over in the stampede to affected areas are control memory, logical thinking, and personality. Only 5-10% of the BPA’s Rap Sheet
cases are inherited. 14 million people with Alzheimer disease are predicted by 2050. The list of negative health effects associated BPA is about 10,000-fold less potent than remarkably long. The most visible effect may 17ß-estradiol, a potent estrogen that is synthesized primarily in the ovary, but also in the placenta, testis and possibly adrenal Aneuploidy is the principal genetic cause of cortex. Because of the disparity, industry pregnancy loss, with most aneuploid fetuses representatives claim it causes no harm at the levels that the majority of people are exposed miscarriages are aneuploid, making it the to. However, a study in 2001 showed that leading known cause of pregnancy loss and, with other xenoestrogens (estrogens from aneuploidy is the leading genetic cause of outside the body), they act together additively, effectively raising the body load of estrogen to retardation. About 1 in 300 liveborn infants dangerous levels. Another study showed and 1 in 3 miscarriages are aneuploid. It is that there is an increased sensitivity to BPA associated with Down syndrome, Patau during the perinatal period, which begins with completion of the twentieth to twenty-eighth Klinefelter syndrome,  Turner syndrome, week of gestation and ends 7 to 28 days after birth. Exposure to BPA increases risk of Alzheimer's disease. And each of these is bears its own extensive list of maladies Avoiding Plastic
physical and mental—of the human body. The condition at birth is directly related to the type While it’s impossible to avoid all plastics, we of chromosome abnormality present in the must rid our diets and lives of this toxic embryo at the time of conception. It is well material as much as possible. There is a huge documented that aneuploidy contributes to the amount of data confirming the migration of increased risk of spontaneous abortion when plastic monomers and additives in all steps of the female partner is older, but it is also food processing. And in my opinion and thought that males more than 30 years old that of many top research scientists, it is only may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion when the female partner is less than 30 years studies before the harm is found. Because of corporate political campaigns financing, meaningful regulations coming out studies— no matter how long we wait—will take even longer to become law. We must protect our Berkeley. A great number of the callers asked families while the obvious results trickle in. what the safest plastic to use in contact with food or water is. Another popular question I strongly advise individuals and governments to ban plastics wherever possible by utilizing plastic is. My answer was that plastic should the precautionary principal. The Wingspread never contact food. It wasn’t popular with Statement on the Precautionary Principle is either the caller or the organization, which the consensus statement of a conference in likes to point out positive alternatives. But 1998. Simply put it states that if you have using the least offensive plastic only prolongs reasonable suspicion of harm coming from and increases the toxic load on the Earth and (plastic in this case) then you must stop it from happening; the burden of proof must be ceramics are the real things and plastic is a on industry, not consumers; alternatives must foul imitation thereof. If saving trees is your be fully explored before using a new material aim, stop using so much stuff. But don’t or technology; and any decisions regarding further degrade the environment in the mean such activities must be "open, informed, and democratic" and "must include affected As consumers, we always look for ways to maintain the status quo of our modern lives. Evidence of the negative health effects of However, the only logic I can see in the plastics exists in already exists in sufficient regulation of food contact plastics is profit at quantity to halt the use of it in contact with society, and environment. You needn’t be a manufacture of plastic itself must be halted for polymer scientist to know that plastic shouldn’t a multitude of reasons. Besides causing an endless number of human deaths, disabilities, and diseases, plastic is clogging all habitats of standing in reality and plain logic. It also requires being free of ties to the industry There is now 6 times more plastic around in zooplankton floating, which is a major food First set aside your assumptions and look at source for sea animals. A large portion of it is preconsumer plastic that has not been made into a product yet. Called nurdels, environment, society, as well as the long-term they’re physically very much like zooplankton. viability of the human race. Next contrast that with you’re findings for benefits. I guarantee Charles Moore, Director of the Algalita Marine that the stack of chips will be far larger in the Research Foundation, told me that new data indicate that the ratio of plastic to zooplankton is even higher in two so-called floating plastic “Garbage Patches” that are each bigger than  Brillat-Savarin, JA. Physiologie du Gout, ou Meditations de Gastronomie Transcendante.Paris: Sautelet et Cie, 1826. Note: Jean Anthelme Brillat- Nurdles are incorporated into all strata of the Savarin (1755-1826) was a French lawyer and politician who achieved fame through a book, Physiologie du DDE, a metabolite of DDT, and other dioxin- Gout. "You are what you eat comes from the quote by Brillat-Savarin "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you like chemicals concentrate on the surface of the plastic nurdles at a rate up to a million  Guidance for Industry: Preparation of Food times that found in the ocean. Captain Contact Notifications and Food Additive Petitions for Moore’s presentation includes images of sea Food Contact Substances: Chemistry Recommendations FINAL GUIDANCE U.S. Food and animals that have suffocated and starved as a Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety & Applied result. Even more startling is seeing plastic Nutrition, Office of Food Additive Safety April 2002 bits incorporated into the flesh of the sea http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/opa2pmnc.html  Telephone conversation with Dr. George Pauli, Conclusion
Associate Director of Science Policy, FDA Office of Food Additive Safety, and Mike Herndon, Head of Media, FDA Office of Food Additive Safety 22 October I spent about two years answering telephone inquiries at an environmental organization in then there are 2^10 - 10 - 1 = 1024 - 11 = 1013. This  Cladosporium: Ascomycete. The most common formula accounts for duplication—> 1,2,3 = 1,3,2 = 2,3,1 mold in the world, found in soil and on textiles, tomatoes, spinach, bananas, and dead vegetation. For  21 CFR § 177.1580 Polycarbonate Resins. image http://www.carolinafilters.com/FunclspP.jpg  Fungicides are a category of pesticide as http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/PC/21CFR177.1580- regulated by the EPA. See What is a Pesticide? U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs 14feb97  Bisphenol-A (BPA) For Doctors and Dentists. http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/What-Is-A- http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Plasticizers/Bisphenol-  Telephone conversation with Dr. George Pauli, Associate Director of Science Policy, FDA Office of  Determination of Bisphenol A and Related Food Additive Safety, and Mike Herndon, Head of Aromatic Compounds Released from Bis-GMA-Based Media, FDA Office of Food Additive Safety 22 October Composites and Sealants by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Environmental Health Perspectives  Plastics: An Important Part Of Your Healthy Diet You could think of them as . . . Advertising by the http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Bisphenol-A-Aromatic- American Plastics Council found in National Geographic  http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/5-Gallon- http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/6th-Basic-Food-  Food For Thought: What's Coming Out of  Disinformation pronunciation: (")di-"sin-f&r-'mA- Baby¹s Bottle? Janet Raloff / Science News 31jul99 sh&n Function: noun Date: 1939 : false information v.156, n.5 http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Babys- deliberately and often covertly spread (as by the planting of rumors) in order to influence public opinion or obscure http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Plasticizers/BPA-Baby- the truth Merriam-Webster online http://webster.com/  Barbie's PVC Body Gets Sticky as Dibutyl  Baby Alert: New Findings about Plastics Phthalate Migrates Yvonne Shashoua / Conservation Department The National Museum of Denmark 19apr99 http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Baby-Bottles- http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Barbies-Health-  Paracelsus: Dose Response. in the Handbook  BPA and Plastic Lab Animal Cages When of Pesticide Toxicology WILLIAM C KRIEGER / Disaster Strikes: Rethinking Caging Materials Lab Academic Press Oct01. Robert Krieger, ed. University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California, U.S.A. http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Plasticizers/BPA-Lab- http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Paracelsus-Dose-  Research Needs for the Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy Health and Environmental Effects of Endocrine in the Female Mouse Current Biology, v.13, 1apr03 Disruptors: A Report of the U.S. EPA-sponsored http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Plasticizers/BPA- Workshop Environmental Health Perspectives, v.104, s.4, Aug96 http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/RJ-  Bisphenol-A: an estrogenic substance is released from polycarbonate flasks during autoclaving  What Are Endocrine Disruptors? Paul Goettlich 2jul03 http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/EDs-PWG- http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/BPA-Polycarbonate-  Telephone conversation with Ernest  Terry Hassold and Patricia Hunt. To Err Sternglass, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Radiological (meiotically) Is Human: The Genesis of Human Physics at the University of Pittsburgh Medical School Aneuploidy Nature Reviews Genetics 2, 280 -291 has written numerous articles on the health effects of (2001); V.2, n.4 Apr01 http://www.nature.com/cgi- low-level radiation. He is Director and Chief Technical taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nrg/journal/v2/n4/abs/nrg0401_2 Officer of the RPHP Baby Teeth Study [www.rphp.org].  Leuren Moret Speaking on Depleted Uranium Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy http://www.mindfully.org/Nucs/2003/DU-Leuren- in the Female Mouse Current Biology, v.13, 1apr03 http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Plasticizers/BPA-  As evidenced by strontium-90 being detected by the Tooth Fairy Project in many thousands of baby  Patau Syndrome - Robert G Best, PhD, teeth http://www.radiation.org/envelope.html Director, Professor, Department of Obstetrics and  CAS Registry Numbers for new compounds Gynecology, Division of Genetics, University of South and assistance with nomenclature can be obtained by Carolina School of Medicine - eMedicine.com writing to Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Client http://author.emedicine.com/ped/topic1745.htm Services, 2540 Olentangy River Road, P.O. Box 3343,  Edwards syndrome - Harold Chen, MD, MS, Columbus, OH 43210, or by visiting their website at FAAP, FACMG, Chief, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Perinatal Genetics, Louisiana State University Medical Center - eMedicine.com  Formula: 2^n - n - 1 This is called a factorial. http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic652.htm Dr. Bruce Sagan, a mathematician at Michigan State  Klinefelter syndrome - Harold Chen, MD, MS, University, did the calculation. Example: where 2^n FAAP, FACMG, Chief, Professor, Department of means 2 to the power n. So, for example, when n = 10 Pediatrics, Section of Perinatal Genetics, Louisiana http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1252.htm Precautionary Principle Rachel's Environment & Health http://webpages.marshall.edu/~adkinsda/B111OutlinesC http://www.mindfully.org/Precaution/Precautionary- hromInhAlt.html Verified by personal conversation with author of the URL, Dr. Dean A. Adkins, a biology  A comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific central gyre - Marine Pollution Bulletin,  Cri-du-chat syndrome - Harold Chen, MD, MS, FAAP, FACMG, Chief, Professor, Department of http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Moore-North-Pacific- Pediatrics, Section of Perinatal Genetics, Louisiana State University Medical Center. eMedicine.com  Email from Charles Moore, Director of the http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic504.htm  Alzheimer Disease - Jeffrey A Gunter, MD,  I am an advisor to the Algalita Marine Staff Physician, Department of Surgery, Division of Research Foundation (AMRF) in Long Beach, CA Emergency Medicine, Denver Health Medical Center.  Plastic Resin Pellets as a Transport Medium http://www.emedicine.com/aaem/topic12.htm for Toxic Chemicals in the Marine Environment -  Reproductive Science Center of the San Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001, 35, 318-324 http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Pellets-Transport- http://www.rscbayarea.com/articles/pgd_indications.html  Does Male Age Affect the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion? An Approach Using Semiparametric Regression - Am. J. Epidemiol. 2003 157: 815-824. Published in Living Nutrition magazine v.15, http://ifr69.vjf.inserm.fr/~web292/fer/Remyhtml/Slama5- 2003-AmJEpidemiol.pdf  Reproductive Malformation of the Male INSTITUTE for ZERO WASTE in AFRICA
Offspring Following Maternal Exposure to Estrogenic Chemicals - Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Postal address: Postnet Suite 126 - Private http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Maternal-Exposure- Bag X04 - Dalbridge - 4014 - South Africa Repro-Malform.htm  The Xenoestrogen Bisphenol A Induces Inappropriate Androgen Receptor Activation and Mitogenesis in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Cells - http://mct.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/1/7/515  Sakaue, M, S Ohsako, R Ishimura, S Kurosawa, M Kurohmaru, Y Hayashi, Y Aoki, J Yonemoto and C Tohyama. 2001. Bisphenol-A Affects Reprinted with kind permission
Spermatogenesis in the Adult Rat Even at a Low Dose. from Paul Goettlich with our
Journal of Occupational Health 43:185 -190.  A Synthetic Antagonist for the Peroxisome gratitude and blessings for his
Proliferator-activated Receptor Inhibits Adipocyte fine work!
Differentiation - J Biol Chem, Vol. 275, Issue 3, 1873-1877, January 21, 2000. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/275/3/1873  Rajapakse, N, D Ong and A Kortenkamp. 2001. Defining the Impact of Weakly Estrogenic Chemicals on the Action of Steroidal Estrogens. Toxicological Sciences 60: 296-304. http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Estrogenic-Steroidal-EstrogensApr01.htm  PPT presentation by James Tilton, PhD, Professor of Reproductive Physiology, Department of Animal & Range Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/ndsu/jtilton/powerpointpresentations/gonadotropins.ppt  Beverly S. Rubin et al. Perinatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Affects Body Weight, Patterns of Estrous Cyclicity, and Plasma LH Levels. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 109, Number 7, July 2001 http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/members/2001/109p675-680rubin/rubin-full.html  Email communication (9oct03) with Dr. Nicolas Olea, Dept. Radiologia y Medicina Fisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain http://www.ugr.es/university.htm
News Release June 10, 2008 Merck Serono Strengthens Its Prescription Medicines Portfolio in Latin America • Merck Serono to commercialize portfolio of established pharmaceutical medicines from Bristol-Myers Squibb in Latin America Geneva, Switzerland, June 10, 2008 – Merck Serono, a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, announced today the signing of a distributio