Caffeinated drinks Many popular drinks contain the stimulant caffeine. It has a bad reputation, but what effects does it really have and does it bring any Effects of caffeine Caffeine acts as a stimulant to the heart and central nervous system, and is also known to increase blood pressure in the short term, although there's no conclusive evidence of long-term effects on blood pressure.
140109_raw materials for kampo preparations.xlsxRaw Materials for Kampo Preparations
JP: Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Non-JPS: Non JP crude drugs standards, NL: not listed in Japanese documents Achyranthes Root is the root of Achyranthes fauriei Leveillé et Vaniot or Achyranthes bidentata Blume (Amaranthaceae) .
Akebia Stem is the climbing stem of Akebia quinata Decaisne or Akebia trifoliata Koidzumi (Lardizabalaceae ), usually cut transversely.
Alisma Tuber is the tuber of Alisma orientale Juzepczuk (Alismataceae ), from which Alpinia Officinarum Rhizome is the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum Hance Aluminum Silicate Hydrate Aluminum Silicate Hydrate with Silicon Dioxide is a mineral substance, mainly composed of aluminum silicate hydrate and silicon dioxide.
Amomum Seed is the seed mass of Amomum xanthioides Wallich (Zingiberaceae ).
Anemarrhena Rhizome is the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge Angelica Dahurica Root is the root of Angelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker filius ex Franchet et Savatier (Umbelliferae ).
Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate *Self standard depending on each manufacturer Apricot Kernel is the seed of Prunus armeniaca Linné, Prunus armeniaca Linné var.
ansu Maximowicz or Prunus sibirica Linné (Rosaceae ).
Aralia Rhizome is usually the rhizome of Aralia cordata Thunberg (Araliaceae ).
Areca is the seed of Areca catechu Linné (Palmae ).
Artemisia Capillaris Flower is the capitulum of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg Artemisia leaf is the leaf and twig of Artemisia princeps Pampanini or Artemisia montana Pampanini (Compositae ).
Asiasarum Root is the root with rhizome of Asiasarum sieboldii F. Maekawa or Asiasarum heterotropoides F. Maekawa var. mandshuricum F. Maekawa Asparagus Tuber is the tuber of Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill (Liliaceae ), from which most of the cork layer is removed after being passed through hot water or steamed.
Astragalus Root is the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge or Astragalus mongholicus Bunge (Leguminosae ).
Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome is the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea De Candolle, Atractylodes chinensis Koidzumi or their interspecific hybrids (Compositae ).
Atractylodes Rhizome is the rhizome of Atractylodes japonica Koidzumi ex Kitamura (Compositae ) (Wa-byakujutsu) or Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodes ovata De Candolle) (Compositae ) (Kara-byakujutsu).
Benincasa seed is the seed of Benincasa cerifera Savi or Benincasa cenfera Savi forma emarginata K. Kimura et Sugiyama (Cucurbitaceae ).
Brown Rice is the caryopsis of Oryza sativa Linné (Gramineae ).
Bupleurum Root is the root of Bupleurum falcatum Linné (Umbelliferae ) Burdock Fruit is the fruit of Arctium lappa Linné (Compositae ).
Cherry Bark is the bark of Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidzumi or Prunus verecunda Koehne (Rosaceae ) .
Chrysanthemum Flower is the capitulum of Chrysanthemurn morifolium Ramatulle or Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Compositae ).
Cimicifuga Rhizome is the rhizome of Cimicifuga simplex Turczaninow, Cimicifuga dahurica Maximowicz, Cimicifuga foetida Linné or Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komarov Cinnamon Bark is the bark of the trunk of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Lauraceae ), or such bark from which a part of the periderm has been removed.
Citrus Unshiu Peel is the pericarp of the ripe fruit of Citrus unshiu Marcowicz or Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae).
Clematis Root is the root with rhizome of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht, or Clematis hexapetala Pallas (Ranunculaceae ).
Clove is the flowering bud of Syzygium aromaticum Merrill et Perry (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg) (Myrtaceae ).
Cnidium Rhizome is the rhizome of Cnidium officina ｌ e Makino (Umbelliferae ), usually Coix Seed is the seed of Coix lachryma-jobi Linné var. mayuen Stapf (Gramineae ), from which the seed coat has been removed.
Coptis Rhizome is the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino, Coptis chinensis Franchet, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao or Coptis teeta Wallich (Ranunculaceae ), from which the roots have been removed practically.
Cornus Fruit is the pulp of the pseudocarp of Cornus officinalis Siebold et Zuccarini Corydalis Tuber is the tuber of Corydalis turtschaninovii Basser forma yanhusuo Y. H.
Chou et C. C. Hsu (Papaveraceae ), usually after being passed through hot water.
Crataegus Fruit is the pseudocarp of Crataegus cuneata Siebold et Zuccarini or Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var. major N. E. Brown (Rosaceae ) without any treatment Cyperus Rhizome is the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus Linné (Cyperaceae ).
Dioscorea Rhizome is the rhizome (rhizophore) of Dioscorea japonica Thunberg or Dioscorea batatas Decaisne (Dioscoreaceae ), from which the periderm has been Ephedra Herb is the terrestrial stem of Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C.A. Meyer or Ephedra equisetina Bunge (Ephedraceae ).
Eucommia Bark is the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (Eucommiaceae ).
Euodia Fruit is the fruit of Euodia ruticarpa Hooker filius et Thomson (Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham), Euodia officinalis Dode (Evodia officinalis Dode) or Euodia bodinieri Dode (Evodia bodinieri Dode).
Fennel is the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbelliferae ) .
Forsythia Fruit is the fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl or Follsythia viridissima Lindley *Self standard depending on each manufacturer Fritillaria Bulb is the bulb of Fritillaria verticillata Willdenow var. thunbergii Baker Gardenia Fruit is the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae ).
Gastrodia Tuber is the steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae ).
Gelatin is a product prepared from aqueous extract of raw collagen by heating. The raw collagen is obtained by acid or alkali treatment of the bone, skin, ligament or tendon of Ginger is the rhizome, with (unpeeled) or without (peeled) the periderm, of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae ).
Ginseng is the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Panax schinseng Nees) (Araliaceae ), from which rootlets have been removed, or the root that has been quickly Glehnia Root and Rhizome is the root and rhizome of Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Glycyrrhiza is the root and stolon, with (unpeeled) or without (peeled) the periderm, of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisher or Glycyrrhiza glabra Linné (Leguminosae ) .
*Self standard depending on each manufacturer Gypsum is natural hydrous calcium sulfate. It possibly corresponds to the formula Hemp Fruit is the fruit of Canriabis sativa Linné (Moraceae ).
Immature Orange is the immature fruit or the fruit cut crosswise of Citrus aurantium Linné var. daidai Makino, Citrus aurantium Linné or Citrus natsudaidai Hayata Japanese Angelica Root is the root of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa or Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyamae Hikino (Umbelliferae ), usually after being passed Japanese Gentian is the root and rhizome of Gentiana scabra Bunge, Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa or Gentiana triflora Pallas (Gentianaceae ).
Jujube is the fruit of Zizyphus jujuba Miller var. inermis Rehder (Rhamnaceae ).
Jujube Seed is the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H. F. Chou Koi is a saccharized substance obtained by hydrolysis of the starch of Zea mays Linné(Gramineae ), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae ), Solanum tuberosum Linné (Solanaceae ), Ipomoea batatas Poiret (Convolvulaceae ) or Oryza sativa Linné(Gramineae ), or the seed of Oryza sativa Linné from which the seed coat is removed.
Lard is the fat obtained from Sus scrofa Linné var. domesticus Gray (Suidae ).
Leonurus Herb is the aerial part of Leonurus japonicus Houttuyn or Leonurus sibiricus Linné (Labiatae ), collected during the flowering season.
Lilium Bulb is the scaly leaves of Lilium lancifolium Thunberg, Lilium brownii F.E.Brown var. colchesteri Wilson, Lilium brownii F.E.Brown or Lilium pumilum De Candolle (Liliaceae ), usually with the application of steaming.
Lindera Root is the root of Lindera strychnifolia Fernandez-Villar (Lauraceae ).
Lithospermum Root is the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold et Zuccarini Longan Aril is the aril of Euphoria longana Lamarck (Sapindacea ).
Longgu is the ossified bone of large mammal, and is mainly composed of calcium Lonicera Leaf and Stem is the leaves and stems of Lonicera japonica Thunberg Loquat Leaf is the leaf of Eriobotrya japonica Lindley (Rosaceae ).
Lycium Bark is the root bark of Lycium chinense Miller or Lycium barbarum Linné Magnolia Bark is the bark of the trunk of Magnolia obovata Thunberg (Magnolia hypoleuca Siebold et Zuccarini), Magnolia officinalis Rehder et Wilson or Magnolia officinalis Rehder et Wilson var. biloba Rehder et Wilson (Magnoliaceae ).
Magnolia Flower is the flower bud of Magnolia salicifolia Maximowicz, Magnolia kobus De Candolle, Magnolia biondii Pampanini, Magnolia sprengeri Pampanini or Magnolia heptapeta Dandy (Magnolia denudata Desrousseaux) (Magnoliaceae ).
Malt is the dried ripe cariopsis of Hordeum vulgare Linné (Gramineae ), after being Mentha Herb is the terrestrial part of Mentha arvensis Linné var. piperascens Malinvaud Moutan Bark is the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (Paeonia moutan Sims) Mulberry Bark is the root bark of Morus alba Linné (Moraceae ) .
Nelumbo Seed is the seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Nymphaeaceae ), usually with the endocarp, sometime being removed the embryo.
Notopterygium is the rhizome and root of Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang or Notopterygium forbesii Boissieu (Umbelliferae ).
Nuphar Rhizome is the longitudinally split rhizome of Nuphar japonicum De Candolle Ophiopogon Tuber is the enlarged part of the root of Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawler *Self standard depending on each manufacturer Oyster Shell is the shell of Ostrea gigas Thunberg (Ostreidae ) .
Peach Kernel is the seed of Prunus persica Batsch or Prunus persica Batsch var.
davidiana Maximowicz (Rosaceae ).
Peony Root is the root of Peaeonia lactiflora Pallas (Paeoniaceae ).
Perilla Herb is the leaves and the tips of branches of Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo or Perilla frutescens Britton var. crispa Decaisne (Labiatae ).
Peucedanum Root is the root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn or Angelica decursiva Franchet et Savatier (Peucedanum decursivum Maximowicz) (Umbelliferae ) .
Phellodendron Bark is the bark of Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht or Phellodendron chinense Schneider (Rutaceae ), from which the periderm has been removed Pinellia Tuber is the tuber of Pinellia ternata Breitenbach (Araceae ), from which the Plantago Seed is the seed of Plantago asiatica Linné (Plantaginaceae ).
Platycodon Root is the root of Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle Polygala Root is the root or the root bark of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow Polygonum Root is the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunberg (Polygonaceae ), often Polyporus Sclerotium is the sclerotium of Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae ).
Poria Sclerotium is the sclerotium of Wolfiporia cocos Ryvarden et Gilbertson (Poria cocos Wolf) (Polyporaceae ), from which usually the external layer has been mostly Powdered Alisma Tuber is the powder of Alisma Tuber.
Powdered Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome is the powder of Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome.
Powdered Cinnamon Bark is the powder of Cinnamon Bark.
Powdered Polyporus Sclerotium is the powder of Polyporus Sclerotium.
Powdered Poria Sclerotium Powdered Poria Sclerotium is the powder of Poria Sclerotium.
Powdered Processed Aconite Root is the powder of Processed Aconite Root prepared bythe process 1 or process 2, the powder of Processed Aconite Root prepared by process 1, or the powder of Processed Aconite Root prepared by the process 1 to which Corn Starch or Lactose Hydrate is added. Process 1: Autoclaving. [Powdered Processed Aconite Root1] Process 2: Heating or autoclaving after rinsing in salt or rock salt solution. [PowderedProcessed Aconite Root 2] .
Refer to “Powdered Processed Aconite Root” Processed Aconite Root is the tuberous root of Aconitum carmichaeli Debeaux orAconitum japonicum Thunberg (Ranunculaceae ) prepared by the following processes.
Process 1: Autoclaving. [Processed Aconite Root 1] Process 2: Heating or autoclaving after rinsing in salt or rock salt solution. [Processed Aconite Root 2] Process 3: Treating with calcium hydroxide after rinsing in salt solution. [ProcessedAconite root 3] Processed Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae ), after being passed through hot water or being steamed.
*Self standard depending on each manufacturer Processed Rehmannia Root *Self standard depending on each manufacturer Pueraria Root is the root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi (Leguminosae ), from which periderm Quercus Bark is the bark of Quercus acutissima Carruthers, Quercus serrata Murray, Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour var. crispula Ohashi or Ouercus variabilis Rehmannia Root is the root of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurea Makino or Rehmania glutinosa Liboschitz (Scrophulariaceae ), with the application of steaming (prepared one: Juku-jio) or without it (non-prepared one: Kan-jio).
Rhubarb is usually the rhizome of Rheum palmatum Linné, Rheum tanguticum Maximowicz. Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum coreanum Nakal or their interspecific Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae ).
Saposhnikovia Root and Rhizome is the root and rhizome of Saposhnikovia divaricata Sappan Wood is the duramen of Caesalpinia sappan Linné (Leguminosae ).
Saussurea Root is the root of Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae ).
Schisandra Fruit is the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baillon (Schisandraceae ).
Schizonepeta Spike is the spike of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet (Labiatae ).
Scutellaria Root is the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae ), from which the Sesame is the seed of Sesamum indicum Linné (Pedaliaceae ).
Sesame Oil is the fixed oil obtained from the seeds of Sesamum indicum Linné *Self standard depending on each manufacturer Sinomenium Stem and Rhizome is the climbing stem and rhizome of Sinomenium acutum Rehder et Wilson (Menispermaceae ), usually cut transversely.
*Self standard depending on each manufacturer Sophora Root is the root of Sophora flavescens Aiton (Leguminosae ) or often such root from which the periderm has been removed.
Tribulus Fruit is the fruit of Tribulus terrestris Linné (Zygophyllaceae ).
Trichosanthes Root is the root of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz var. Japonicum Kitamura or Trichosanthes bracteata Voigt (Cucurbitaceae ), from which the cortical layer has been removed.
Uncaria Hook is, hook or the hook-bearing stem of Uncaria rhynchophylla Miquel, Uncaria sinensis Haviland or Uncaria macrophylla Wallich (Rubiaceae ), sometimes after being passed through hot water or steamed.
*Self standard depending on each manufacturer White Beeswax is bleached Yellow Beeswax.
Yellow Beeswax is the purified wax obtained from honeycombs such as those of Apis mellifera Linné or Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae ).
Zanthoxylum Fruit is the pericarps of the ripe fruit of Zanthoxylum piperitum De Candolle (Rutaceae ), from which the seeds separated from the pericarps have been
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