Microsoft word - apg iii orders & families

Outline of angiosperm phylogeny: orders, families, and representative
genera with emphasis on Oregon native plants
The following listing gives an introduction to the phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants that has emerged in recent decades, and which is based on nucleic acid sequences as well as morphological and developmental data. This listing emphasizes temperate families of the Northern Hemisphere and is meant as an overview with examples of Oregon native plants. It includes many exotic genera that are grown in Oregon as ornamentals plus other plants of interest worldwide. The genera that are Oregon natives are printed in a blue font. Genera that are exotics are shown in black, however genera in blue may also contain non-native species. Names separated by a slash are alternatives or else the nomenclature is in flux. When several genera have the same common name, the names are separated by commas. The order of the family names is from the linear listing of families in the APG III report. For further information, see the references on the last page. Basal Angiosperms (ANITA grade)
Amborellaceae, sole family, the earliest branch of flowering plants, a shrub native to New Hydatellaceae – aquatics from Australasia, previously classified as a grass Cabombaceae (water shield – Brasenia, fanwort – Cabomba) Nymphaeaceae (water lilies – Nymphaea; pond lilies – Nuphar) Schisandraceae (wild sarsaparilla, star vine – Schisandra; Japanese kudsura – Kudsura; star Chloranthales – Chloranthaceae, sole family (Chloranthus)
Winteraceae (Winter’s bark – Drimys winteri) Saururaceae (yerba mansa – Anemopsis californica; Houttuynia; lizard tail – Saururus) Piperaceae (pepper, kava – Piper; Peperomia houseplants) Aristolochiaceae (wild ginger – Asarum; dutchman’s pipe, birthwort, pipe vine – Aristolochia) Myristicaceae (nutmeg tree - Myristica) Magnoliaceae (Magnolia; tulip tree, tulip popular – Liriodendron) Annonaceae (paw-paw - Asimina; cherimoya, sour sop, sweet sop, pond-apple – Annona; Rugel’s pawpaw – Deeringothamnus) Calycanthaceae (Carolina allspice, California spice bush – Calycanthus; wintersweet – Lauraceae (California bay, Oregon myrtle – Umbellularia; avocado, red bay tree, silk bay tree – Persea; sweet bay – Laurus; cinnamon, camphor tree – Cinnamomum; spice bush – Lindera; pond spice – Litsea; Sassafras) Monocots
Basal Monocots
Acoraceae, sole family (sweet flag – Acorus) Araceae (skunk cabbage – Lysichiton; duckweeds – Lemna, Wolffia; greater duckweed – Spirodela; elephant’s ear – Alocasia; Anthurium; jack-in-the-pulpit – Arisaema; taro – Colocasia; Dieffenbachia; pothos – Epipremnum, Monstera; golden club – Orontium; arrow arum – Peltandra; Philodendron; water lettuce – Pistia; Scindapsus; peace lily – Spathiphyllum; skunk cabbage – Symplocarpus; calla lily – Zantedeschia) Tofieldiaceae (Tofieldia, Triantha – previously classified as lily family) Alismataceae (water plantain – Alisma; fringed water plantain – Damasonium, arrowhead, wapato – Sagittaria; aquarium swordplant - Echindorus) Hydrocharitaceae (waterweed – Elodea; water-nymph – Najas; frog’s-bit – Hydrocharis, Limnobium; tape grass – Vallisneria) Scheuchzeriaceae (podgrass – Scheuchzeria) Juncaginaceae (arrow grass – Triglochin) Zosteraceae (surf-grass – Phyllospadix; eelgrass – Zostera) Potamogetonaceae (pondweeds – Potamogeton; horned pondweed - Zannichellia) Ruppiaceae (ditch grass – Ruppia) Core Monocots
Natheciaceae (bog asphodel – Narthecium) Dioscoreaceae (tropical yams, air potato – Dioscorea; bat-flower – Tacca) Cyclanthaceae (Panama hat plant – Carludovica) Pandanaceae (the screw pines – Pandanus, palm-like tropical trees) Melanthiaceae (brook trillium – Pseudotrillium; wand lily or death camas – Toxicoscordion, Anticlea; Trillium; false hellebore, corn husk lily – Veratrum; bear grass - Xerophyllum) Alstroemeriaceae (Peruvian or Chilean lily – Alstroemeria) Colchicaceae (autumn crocus – Colchicum; gloriosa lily – Gloriosa; climbing lily – Littonia; Smilacaceae (catbrier, bullbrier, sarsaparilla, carrion flower, California greenbrier– Smilax) Liliaceae (sago or mariposa lily – Calochortus; bluebead lily – Clintonia; trout lily, fawn lily – Erythronium; fritillary – Fritillaria; lilies – Lilium; fairy bells – Prosartes; fetid adder’s tongue – Scoliopus; twisted stalk – Streptopus; toad lily – Tricyrtis; tulips – Tulipa) Orchidaceae (Orchids, one of the largest families, mostly tropical, with some temperate species; some major genera include Bletilla; Cattleya; Dendrobium; Vanda, and Vanilla. Natives of the U.S. include fairy slipper – Calypso; Cephalanthus; coral root - Corallorhiza; Cypripedium; Epipactis; Goodyera; Listeria; Piperia; Platanthera; lady’s tresses - Spiranthes) Tecophilaceaceae (Hartwig’s doll’s-lily – Odontostomum) Iridaceae (Iris; blue-eyed grass – Sisyrinchium; Crocus; Freesia; Gladiolus; harlequin flower – Sparaxis; Tigridia; Tritonia) Subfamily Hemerocallioideae (daylily – Hemerocallis; New Zealand flax – Phormium) Subfamily Asphodeloideae (asphodel – Asphodelus; red-hot poker – Kniphofia; Aloe; Subfamily Agapanthoideae (Agapanthus) Subfamily Allioideae (onion, leeks, and garlic, native and horticultural species – Allium) Subfamily Amaryllidoideae (naked ladies – Amaryllis; Clivia; swamp lily – Crinum; snow- drops – Galanthus; amaryllis bulb – Hippeastrum; spider lily – Hymenocallis; Leucojum; daffodils – Narcissus; zephyr lily - Zephyranthes) Subfamily Agavoideae (camass – Camassia; century plant - Agave; desert lily – Hesperocallis; red yucca – Hesperaloe; Hosta; Yucca) Subfamily Brodiaeoideae (cluster lilies – Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Triteleia) Subfamily Scilloideae (glory-of-the-snow – Chionodoxa; Galtonia; hyacinths – Hyacinthus; grape hyacinths – Muscari; star of Bethlehem, pregnant onion – Ornithogalum; Pusckinia; squill – Scilla) Subfamily Asparagoideae (Asparagus) Subfamily Nolinoideae (wild lily-of-the-valley – Maianthemum; false Solomon’s seal – Smilacina; lily-of-the-valley – Convallaria; sotol, desert spoon – Dasylirion; dracaena, dragon’s blood tree, lucky bamboo – Dracaena; lily-turf – Liriope; beargrass – Nolina; Solomon’s seal – Polygonatum, butcher’s broom – Ruscus; mother-in-law’s tongue – Sansevieria)
Commelinid Monocots
Arecaceae or Palmae, sole family (coconut – Cocos; raffia palm – Raphia; date palm – Phoenix; fishtail palm – Caryota, rattan palm – Calamus, and many other genera) Commelinaceae (spiderworts, dayflower – Tradescandia, Commelina; wandering Jew – Zebrina) Pontederiaceae (Heteranthera; water hyacinth – Eichhornia; pickerel weed – Pontederia) Haemodoraceae (kangaroo paw – Anigozanthos; bloodroot – Lachnanthes) Zingiberales [secondary veins are parallel with each other, but not to the midvein] Strelitziaceae (bird of paradise – Strelitzia) Marantaceae (prayer plant, arrowroot – Maranta; peacock plant – Calathea; fire flag – Thalia) Zingiberaceae (ginger – Zingiber; shell ginger, ornamental ginger – Alpinia; tumeric – Curcuma; cardamom – Elettaria; torch-ginger - Nicolaia) Typhaceae (bur-reeds – Sparganium; cattails – Typha) Bromeliaceae (pineapple - Ananas, Spanish moss – Tillandsia; ornamental bromeliads – Aechmea, Guzmania; Neoregelia; Tillandsia; Vriesea) Xyridaceae (yellow-eyed grass – Xyris) Juncaceae (rushes – Juncus; wood rushes – Luzula) Cyperaceae (clubrush – Amphiscirpus; Bulbostylis; bulrush – Bolboschoenus, Schoenopletus, Scirpus; cottongrass – Calliscirpus, Eriophorum; sedges – Carex; flatsedge, papyrus – Cyperus; Dulichium; Chinese water chestnut, spikerush – Eleocharis; spike sedges – Eleocharis; Isolepis; Kobresia; Lipocarpha; Rhynchospora; Trichophorum) Poaceae or Gramineae (13 subfamilies, including bamboos. Achnatherum, Agrostis, Bromus, Elymus, Festuca, Poa, and many others; oats – Avena; barley – Hordeum; rice – Oryza; ; rye – Secale; wheat – Triticumcorn – Zea) Minor taxa
Ceratophyllales – probable sister to the eudicots
Ceratophyllaceae, sole family (water hornwort – Ceratophyllum) Eudicots [also called tricolpates, from the three openings of the pollen]
Basal Eudicots
Papaveraceae (prickly poppy – Argemone; Canbya; California poppy – Eschscholzia; Meconella; cream cups – Platystemon; celandine – Chelidonium; Himalayan poppy, Welsh poppy – Meconopsis; Iceland poppy, Oriental poppy – Papaver; bloodroot – Sanguinaria; wood poppy – Stylophorum) Subfamily Fumarioideae (Corydalis; bleeding-heart – Dicentra; fumitory - Fumaria) Menispermaceae (fish-berry – Anamirta; curare – Chondrodendron; Carolina moonseed, coralbeads – Cocculus; moonseed – Menispermum) Berberidaceae (Oregon grape holly –Berberis (previously Mahonia); vanilla leaf – Achlys; inside-out flower – Vancouveria; twin leaf – Jeffersonia; may-apple – Podophyllum; bishop’s hat – Epimedium; blue cohosh – Caulophyllum; sacred bamboo, heavenly bamboo – Nandina) Ranunculaceae (monkshood – Aconitum; baneberry – Actaea; windflower, hepatica – Anemone; columbine – Aquilegia; marsh marigold – Caltha; black cohosh, bugbane – Cimicifuga; Clematis; goldthread – Coptis; larkspur, delphinium – Delphinium; rue anemone – Enemion; mouse-tail – Myosurus; buttercup – Ranunculus; meadow rue – Thalictrum; Trautvettia; globeflower – Trollius; Christmas rose, Lenten rose – Helleborus; goldenseal – Hydrastis; love-in-a-mist – Nigella) Nelumbonaceae (sacred lotus, American lotus – Nelumbo) Platanaceae (plane tree, sycamore, buttonwood tree - Platanus) Proteaceae (Protea, Banksia, Macadamia, many others, mainly Australian and South African) Buxaceae (boxwood – Buxus; Japanese spurge – Pachysandra) Core Eudicots
Paeoniaceae (peonies – Paeonia) Altingiaceae (sweet gum – Liquidamber) Cercidiphyllaceae (katsura tree – Cercidiphyllum) Hamamelidaceae (witch alder – Fothergilla; witch hazel – Hamamelis; Chinese witch hazel – Grossulariaceae (currants, gooseberries – Ribes) Saxifragaceae (Boykinia; Darmera; coral bells, alum root– Heuchera; Lithophragma; Micranthes; miterwort – Mitella; saxifrages, strawberry “begonia” – Saxifraga; fringecup – Telima; foamflower – Tiarella; piggy-back plant – Tolmiea; meadow sweet – Astilbe; Bergenia) Crassulaceae (stonecrop – Sedum; jade plant, pigmy-weed – Crassula; sea cliff stonecrop – Dudleya; king’s crown – Rhodiola; Sedella; hen and chicks – Escheveria; maternity plant, air plant – Kalanchoe; houseleeks, hen and chickens – Sempervivum) Haloragaceae (water-milfoil – Myriophyllum) Rosids
Vitaceae, sole family (grapes – Vitis; Boston ivy, Virginia creeper, woodbine – Parthenocissus; blueberry climber, porcelain berry – Ampelopsis; grape ivy – Cissus) Fabids (Eurosids I)
Krameriaceae (rhatany – Krameria) Zygophyllaceae (creosote bush – Larrea; lignum vitae – Guaiacum; puncture vine – Tribulus) Celastraceae (western burning bush – Euonymus; grass of Parnassus – Parnassia; Oregon boxleaf – Paxistima; bittersweet – Celastrus) NITROGEN-FIXING CLADE (nitrogen-fixing lineages marked*) Fabales* Fabaceae* or Leguminosae* – the legume family Basal lineages: Tribe Cercideae (western redbud tree – Cercis; orchid tree – Bauhinia) Subfamily Caesalpinioideae (*5%) (Cassia; honey locust – Gleditsia; Kentucky coffee tree – Gymnocladus; palo verde – Cercidium; hog potato – Hoffmannseggia; Senna; tamarind - Tamarindus) Subfamily Mimosoideae (*92%) (sensitive plant – Mimosa*; mesquite – Prosopis*; acacia or wattle tree – Acacia*; powder puff – Calliandra*; silk tree – Albizia*) Subfamily Faboideae(*97%) (lotus – Acmispon; Amorpha; milkvetch – Astragalus; Dalea; wild licorice – Glycyrrhiza; sweetvetch – Hedysarum; deer vetch, trefoil – Hosackia; sweet pea – Lathyrus; trefoil – Lotus; lupine – Lupinus; crazyweed – Fabales – Fabaceae – Faboideae (continued) Oxytropis; locust tree – Robinia; Sophora; golden pea – Thermopsis; clovers – Trifolium; vetches – Vicia; peanut – Arachnis; broom – Cytisus, Genista, Spartium; soybean – Glycine; lentils – Lens; alfalfa – Medicago; ironwood – Olneya; beans – Phaseolus; peas – Pisum; gorse – Ulex; Wisteria) Polygalaceae (milkwort, snakeroot – Polygala) Rosaceae* – (Agrimonia; service berry – Amelanchier; goat’s beard – Aruncus; mountain mahogany – Cercocarpus*; fern bush – Chamaebatiaria; hawthorn – Crataegus; mountain avens – Dryas*; Drymocallis; Filipendula; strawberry – Fragaria; Geum; toyon – Heteromeles; ocean spray – Holodiscus; Horkelia; Ivesia; crab apple – Malus; Indian plum – Oemleria; ninebark – Physocarpus; cinquefoil – Potentilla; ; apricot, almond, peach, cherry, plum, chokecherry – Prunus; cliffrose – Purshia*; wild roses – Rosa; blackberry, raspberry, thimbleberry, salmonberry – Rubus; burnet – Sanguisorba; mountain ash – Sorbus; Spirea; lady’s-mantle – Alchemilla; chokeberry – Aronia; Cotoneaster; Pyracantha; pear – Pyrus) Elaeagnaceae* (buffalo berry – Shepherdia*; Russian olive, silverberry – Elaeagnus*) Rhamnaceae* (California lilac, buckbrush, redroot – Ceanothus*; cascara sagrada, redberry, buckthorn, coffeeberry – Rhamnus; Chinese jujube – Ziziphus) Ulmaceae (elms – Ulmus; planetree – Planera; Zelkova) Cannabaceae (hackberry tree, sugarberry – Celtis; hops – Humulus; hemp, marihuana – Moraceae (breadfruit – Artocarpus; paper mulberry – Broussonetia; fig, banyan – Ficus; Osage orange, bois d’arc – Maclura; mulberry – Morus) Urticaceae (pellitory – Parietaria; nettles – Urtica; ramie, false nettle – Boehmeria; aluminum Fagaceae (chinquapin – Chrysolepis; tanoak – Notholithocarpus; oaks – Quercus; chestnut – Castanea; Asian chinquapin – Castanopsis; beeches – Fagus) Myricaceae* (bayberry, candleberry, sweet-gale – Myrica*; wax myrtle – Morella*/Myrica*) Juglandaceae (walnuts – Juglans; pecan, hickory – Carya) Casuarinaceae* (casuarina, she-oak, beefwood, Australian pine – Casuarina*) Betulaceae* (birches – Betula; alders – Alnus*; hazelnuts – Corylus; ironwood, hornbeam – Carpinus; hophornbeam – Ostrya) Begoniaceae (begonias – Begonia) Cucurbitaceae (coastal manroot – Marah; squash, pumpkin, gourd – Cucurbita; cantaloupe, cucumber – Cucumis; watermelon – Citrullus; squirting cucumber – Ecballium; bur cucumber – Echinocystis; vegetable sponge – Luffa; star cucumber – Sicyos) Oxalidaceae (wood sorrel, oxalis – Oxalis; star fruit, carambola - Averrhoa) Euphorbiaceae (prostrate spurge, sandmat – Chamaesyce; Croton; poinsettia, spurge – Euphorbia; chenille plant – Acalypha; croton (tropical houseplant) – Codiaeum; rubber tree – Hevea; coral plant, physic-nut – Jatropha; cassava, tapioca – Manihot; castor bean – Ricinus) Elatinaceae (Bergia; waterwort – Elatine) Malpighiaceae (Barbados cherry – Malpighia) Passifloraceae – (passion flower – Passiflora) Salicaceae – (aspen, cottonwood, popular – Populus; willows – Salix) Violaceae (pansy, violets – Viola; green violet – Hybanthus) Linaceae (Hesperolinon; flax – Linum, Sclerolinon, and others) Hypericaceae (St. John’s wort, Klamath weed – Hypericum) Malvids (Eurosids II)
Geraniaceae (storksbill, filaree, heronsbill – Erodium; wild geraniums, cranesbill – Geranium; garden geraniums, scented geraniums – Pelargonium) Lythraceae (toothcup – Ammannia, Rotala; clammy cuphea, bat-faced cuphea – Cuphea; swamp loosestrife – Decodon; crape myrtle – Lagerstroemia; henna – Lawsonia; purple loosestrife – Lythrum; pomegranate – Punica) Onagraceae (suncup, evening primrose – Camissonia, Chylismia, Eremothera, Taraxia, Tetrapteron; fireweed – Chamerion; enchanter’s nightshade – Circaea; godetia, farewell-to-spring – Clarkia; willow herb – Epilobium; velvetweed – Gaura; groundsmoke – Gayophytum; seedbox, water purslane – Ludwigia; evening primrose – Oenothera; spike primrose – Boisduvalia; California fuchsia – formerly Zauschneria, now Epilobium; Fuchsia) Myrtaceae (pineapple guava – Acca, Feijoa; bottlebrush – Callistemon; florists’ waxflower – Chamelaucium; gum trees – Eucalyptus; tea tree – Leptospermum; myrtle – Myrtus; allspice – Pimenta; guava – Psidium; cloves – Syzygium) Melastomataceae (meadow beauty – Rhexia; most genera are tropical) Crossomatales – Crossomataceae (Nevada greasewood – Glossopetalon) Burseraceae (frankincense – Boswellia; myrrh – Commiphora) Anacardiaceae (sumac – Rhus; poison oak, poison ivy – Toxicodendron; cashew – Anacardium; smoke tree – Cotinus; mango – Mangifera; Florida poisonwood – Metopium; pistachio nuts – Pistacia; peppertree – Schinus) Subfamily Hippocastanoideae (maples – Acer; horse chestnut, California buckeye – Subfamily Sapindoideae (inkwood – Exothea; lychee – Litchi; goldenrain tree – Koelreuteria; soapberry – Sapindus) Rutaceae (western hoptree – Ptelea; torchwood – Amyris; Mexican orange – Choisya; orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit – Citrus; gas plant – Dictamnus; kumquat – Fortunella; trifoliate orange – Poncirus; rue – Ruta; Skimmia; prickly-ash – Zanthoxylum) Simaroubaceae (tree-of-heaven – Ailanthus; paradise tree – Simarouba) Meliaceae (chinaberry tree – Melia; mahogany – Swietenia) Subfamily Byttnerioideae (chocolate – Theobroma) Subfamily Sterculioideae (kola nut – Cola; flannelbush – Fremontodendron; flame tree – Subfamily Tilioideae tribe (linden trees, basswood tree – Tilia; jute – Corchorus) Subfamily Malvoideae (wild hollyhock, globe mallow – Iliamna; checker mallow - Sidalcea; globe mallow – Sphaeralcea; hollyhock – Alcea; marshmallow – Althaea; Chinese bellflower, Chinese jute – Abutilon; poppymallow – Callirhoe; cotton – Gossypium; okra - Hibiscus; tree mallow – Lavatera; mallow, cheeseweed – Malva) Subfamily Bombacoideae (baobab – Adansonia; silk tree – Bombax; kapok tree - Ceiba; durian fruit – Durio; balsawood – Ochroma) Thymelaeaceae (Daphne, Edgeworthia) Cistaceae (rockrose – Cistus; sunrose – Helianthemum; beach heather – Hudsonia) Tropaeolaceae (nasturtiums, canary creeper – Tropaeolum) Limnanthaceae (meadow foam, poached eggs – Limnanthes; false mermaid – Floerkea) Resedaceae (mignonette – Reseda) Capparaceae (capers – Capparis) Cleomaceae (spider flower, bee plant – Cleomella; Peritoma; Polansia; Cleome) Brassicaceae or Cruciferae (rockcress – Arabis, Boechera; Athysanus; winter cress – Barbarea; sea rocket – Cakile; bittercress – Cardamine; wild cabbage – Caulanthus; tansy mustard – Descurainia; Draba; wallflower – Erysimum; peppergrass – Lepidium; pennycress – Thlaspi, Noccaea; bladderpod – Physaria; yellowcress – Rorippa; tumble mustard – Sisymbrium; Stanleya; Streptanthus; Thelypodium; Alyssum; cress – Arabidopsis; horseradish – Armoracia; Aubrieta; cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, canola, turnip, field mustard, various weedy species – Brassica; shepherd’s purse – Capsella; sea kale, giant kale – Crambe; rocket – Hesperis; candytuft – Iberis; honesty – Lunaria; stocks – Matthiola; radish, wild radish – Raphanus; wasabi – Wasabia) More Core Eudicots
Santalaceae – (dwarf mistletoe – Arceuthobium; bastard toadflax – Comandra; Christmas mistletoe, juniper mistletoe – Phoradendron; sandalwood – Santalum) Loranthaceae – (tropical mistletoes, large-flowered mistletoes) Tamaricaceae (salt cedar – Tamarix) Plumbaginaceae (sea pink, thrift – Armeria; statice, sea lavender – Limonium; plumbago – Polygonaceae (bistort – Bistorta; spineflower – Chorizanthe; sulfur flower, buckwheat – Eriogonum; knotweed, smartweed, bistort – Polygonum, Persicaria, Aconogonon; sorel – Rumex; coral vine – Antigonon; sea grape – Coccoloba; cultivated buckwheat – Fagopyrum; silver lace vine, Japanese knotweed – Fallopia; rhubarb – Rheum) Droseraceae (sundews – Drosera; water wheel plant – Aldrovanda; Venus fly trap – Dionaea) Nepenthaceae (Asian pitcher plant – Nepenthes) Simmondsiaceae (jojoba – Simondsia) Caryophyllaceae (sandmat – Cardionema; chickweed– Cerastium; sandwort – Eremogone, Minuartia, Moehringia; Irish moss, pearlwort – Sagina; campion, catch-fly, Indian pink – Silene; sandspurry – Spergularia; starwort, chickweed – Stellaria; corn cockle – Agrostemma; Arenaria; carnation, sweet william, pinks – Dianthus; baby’s breath – Gypsophila; maltese cross – Lychnis, soapwort – Saponaria) Amaranthaceae (pigweed, amaranth – Amaranthus; salt bush – Atriplex; goosefoot, lamb’s quarters, quinoa – Chenopodium; bugseed – Corispermum; Monolepis; glasswort – Salicornia; greasewood – Sarcobatus; beets, chard – Beta; tumbleweed – Salsola; spinach – Spinacia; cockscomb – Celosia; globe amaranth – Gomphrena) [This includes the traditional goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, which is no longer recognized.] Aizoaceae (sea purslane – Sesuvium; ice plants – Aptenia, Carpobrotus, Cephalophyllum, Delosperma, Lampranthus, Malephora, Mesembryanthemum, Oscularia; living stones – Lithops; Livingstone daisy – Dorotheanthus; New Zealand spinach – Tetragonia) Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed – Phytolacca) Sarcobataceae (greasewood – Sarcobatus) Nyctaginaceae (sand verbena – Abronia; four o’clocks, umbrella-wort – Mirabilis; Molluginaceae (carpet weed – Mollugo) Montiaceae (redmaids – Calandrinia; pussypaws – Calyptridium/Cistanthe; spring beauty, miner’s lettuce – Claytonia; bitterroot – Lewisia; miner’s lettuce – Montia) Portulacaceae (rose moss, purslane – Portulaca) [Note: Montia, Claytonia, Lewsia, and perhaps others were moved from Portulacaceae to Montiaceae.] Cactaceae (cholla, prickly pear – Opuntia; ball cactus – Pediocactus; saguaro – Carnegiea; hedge cactus – Cereus; hedgehog cactus, claret cup – Echinocereus; orchid cactus – Epiphyllum; barrel cactus – Ferocactus; night-blooming cereus – Hylocereus; pincushion cactus, fishhook cactus – Mammillaria; Christmas cactus – Schlumbergera) Asterids
Cornaceae (dogwood, bunchberry – Cornus) includes Nyssaceae (handkerchief or dove tree – Davidia; tupelo tree – Nyssa) Hydrangeaceae (mock-orange – Philadephus; whipplevine – Whipplea; tree anemone – Carpentaria; climbing hydrangea – Decumaria; Deutzia; fendlerbush – Fendlera; Hydrangea; waxflower – Jamesia) Loasaceae (blazing star – Mentzelia) Balsaminaceae (busy lizzie, touch-me-not, balsam, jewelweed – Impatiens) Fouquieriaceae (ocotillo – Fouquieria) Polemoniaceae (gilia – Aliciella; tiny trumpet – Collomia; woollystar – Eriastrum; bird’s eyes – Gilia; Gymnosteris; scarlet gilia, skyrocket – Ipomopsis; babystars – Leptosiphon (Linanthus); prickly phlox – Linanthus; pincushion plant – Navarretia; Phlox; sky pilot, Jacob’s ladder – Polemonium; cup-and-saucer vine – Cobaea) Lecythidaceae (Brazil nuts – Bertholletia; cannonball tree - Couroupita) Sapotaceae – (sapodilla, chicle - Manilkara; bumelia, ironwood – Sideroxylon) Ebenaceae (ebony wood, persimmon – Diospyros) Subfamily Primuloideae (rock jasmine – Androsace; shooting star – Dodecatheon; dwarf primrose – Douglasia; milkwort – Glaux; primrose – Primula) Subfamily Myrsinoideae (chaffweed, yellow loosestrife – Lysimachia; starflower – Trientalis; scarlet and blue pimpernels – Anagallis; marlberry – Ardisia; Cyclamen) Theaceae (tea, camellia – Camellia; Franklin tree – Franklinia; loblolly-bay – Gordonia; Symplocaceae (sapphireberry, sweetleaf – Symplocos) Diapensiaceae (pincushion plant – Diapensia; beetleweed – Galax; pyxie – Pyxidanthera; Oconee bells, fringe bells – Shortia) Styracaceae (snowbell – Styrax; silver bell trees, snowdrop tree – Halesia) Sarraceniaceae (pitcher plant – Darlingtonia, Sarracenia) Actinidiaceae (kiwi fruit, Chinese gooseberry – Actinidia) Clethraceae (lily-of-the-valley tree, summersweet, sweet pepperbush – Clethra) Cyrillaceae (buckwheat tree – Cliftonia; leatherwood, titi – Cyrilla) Subfamily Enkianthoideae (Enkianthus) Subfamily Pyroloideae (pipsissewa – Chimaphila; waxflower, single beauty – Moneses; Orthilia; wintergreen, shinleaf – Pyrola) [This contains the former wintergreen family, Pyrolaceae, which is no longer recognized.] Subfamily Monotropoideae (sugar stick – Allotropa; gnome plant – Hemitomes; Indian pipe, pinesap – Monotropa; pinefoot – Pitypus; pinesap – Pleuricospora; pinedrops – Pterospora; snowplant - Sarcodes) Subfamily Arbutoideae (madrone – Arbutus; kinnikinnick, manzanita – Arctostaphylos) Subfamily Cassiopoideae (white heather – Cassiope) Subfamily Ericoideae (Elliotia; crowberry – Empetrum; mountain laurel – Kalmia; Kalmiopsis; mountain heath – Phyllodoce; azalea, rhododendron – Rhododendron; [Ledum is now a subgroup of Rhododendron]; heather – Calluna; Daboecia; trailing arbutus – Epigaea; heath – Erica) Subfamily Vaccinioideae (wintergreen, salal – Gaultheria; Leucothoe; blueberry, cranberry, huckleberry – Vaccinium; leatherleaf – Chamaedaphne;) Lamiids (Euasterids I)
(silktassel – Garrya; Japanese arcuba – Arcuba) Rubiaceae (bedstraw, sweet woodruff, cleavers – Gallium; Bouvardia; button bush – Cephalanthus; quinine – Cinchona; coffee – Coffea; Gardenia; bluets – Houstonia; flame-of-the-woods – Ixora; partridgeberry, twinberry – Mitchella; Pentas; ipecac – Psychotria; madder – Rubia; field madder – Sherardia) Gentianaceae (timwort – Cicendia; Comastoma; monument plant, green gentian – Frasera; gentian – Gentiana; dwarf gentian – Gentianella; one-flowered gentian – Gentianopsis; star gentian, felwort – Swertia; Zeltnera/Centarium; centaury, rosita – Centaurium; prairie gentian, lisianthus – Eustoma; German or Persian violet – Exacum; pennywort – Obolaria; salt marsh pink, rose gentian – Sabatia) Loganiaceae (Indian pink, pink root – Spigelia; strychnine, curare – Strychnos) Gelsemiaceae (yellow jessamine, swamp jessamine – Gelsemium) Apocynaceae Subfamily Apocynoideae (dogbane, Indian hemp – Apocynum; ; bluestar – Amsonia; Madagascar periwinkle – Catharanthus; oleander – Nerium; frangipangi – Plumeria; periwinkle – Vinca) Subfamily Asclepiadoideae (milkweeds – Asclepias; Ceropegia; wax plant – Hoya; carrion flower – Stapelia) [This includes the former milkweed family, Asclepiaceae, which is no longer recognized as a separate family.] Boraginales (listed now on the Angiosperm Phylogeny website) Boraginaceae (fiddleneck – Amsinckia; hidden flower – Cryptantha; hound’s tongue – Cynoglossum; alpine forget-me-not – Eritrichium; stickseed – Hackelia, Lappula; puccoon – Lithospermum; lungwort, bluebells – Mertensia; forget-me-not – Myosotis; combseed – Pectocarya; popcorn flower – Plagiobothrys; Anchusa; borage – Borago; Brunnera; Echium; lungwort – Pulmonaria; comfrey – Symphytum) Hydrophyllaceae (Eriodictyon; Hesperochiron; waterleaf – Hydrophyllum; baby blue eyes – Nemophilia; scorpionweed – Phacelia; mistmaiden – Romanzoffia) (Nama is in flux.) Heliotropiaceae (heliotrope – Heliotropium) Convolvulaceae (wild morning glory – Calystegia; alkali weed – Cressa; dodder – Cuscuta; Dichondra; bindweed – Convolulus; morning glory, sweet potato – Ipomoea; Hawaiian wood rose – Merremia) Solanaceae (false groundcherry – Leucophysalis; Indian tobacco – Nicotiana; potato, tomato, eggplant, nightshade – Solanum; belladonna – Atropa; amethyst flower – Browallia; angel’s trumpet – Brugmansia; yesterday-today-and-tomorrow – Brunfelsia; million bells – Calibrachoa; peppers – Capsicum; night jasmine – Cestrum; jimson weed – Datura; henbane – Hyoscyamus; desert thorn – Lycium; mandrake – Mandragora; cup flower – Nierembergia; Petunia; tomatillos, ground cherry – Physalis; purple ground cherry – Quincula; Salpiglossis; Schizanthus) Oleaceae (ash tree – Fraxinus; fringe tree – Chionanthus; swamp privet – Forestiera; Forsythia; jasmine – Jasminum; privet – Ligustrum; olive – Olea; devilwood, fragrant olive – Osmanthus; lilac – Syringa) Calceolariaceae (pocket book flower – Calceolaria) Gesneriaceae (hot water plant – Achimenes; zebra vine, lipstick plant – Aeschynanthus; Columnea; flame violet – Episcia; firecracker – Gesneria; Chinese foxglove – Rehmannia; African violet – Saintpaulia; gloxinia – Sinningia; cape primrose – Streptocarpus) Plantaginaceae (snapdragon – Antirrhinum; blue-eyed Mary, Chinese houses – Collinsia; foxglove – Digitalis; hedge hyssop – Gratiola; woodland beard-tongue – Nothochelone; blue toadflax – Nuttallanthus; beard-tongue – Penstemon; plantain – Plantago; snow queen, kittentails – Synthyris; Tonella; speedwell – Veronica; Asarina; Bacopa; turtlehead – Chelone; Hebe; Kickxia; toadflax – Linaria) (Mare’s tail – Hippuris and water-starwort – Callitriche are placed in Plantaginaceae for now, but may be moved.) Scrophulariaceae (mudwort – Limosella; figwort – Scrophularia; butterfly bush – Buddleja; Diascia; Nemesia; mullein – Verbascum) Linderniaceae (moist bank pimpernel – Lindernia; Torenia) Pedaliaceae (sesame – Sesamum) Lamiaceae or Labiatae (horsemint, giant hyssop – Agastache; dragon head – Dracocephalum; water horehound, bugleweed – Lycopus; mint – Mentha; Monardella; self-heal – Prunella; sages – Salvia; savory, yerba buena – Satureja; scull-cap – Scutellaria; lamb’s ear, hedge-nettle, betony – Stachys; blue-curls – Trichostema; carpet bugle – Ajuga; American beauty berry – Callicarpa; hyssop – Hyssopus; dead nettle, henbit – Lamium; lavender – Lavadula; horehound – Marrubium; lemon balm – Melissa; bells of Ireland – Molucella; bee balm, horsemint, wild bergamot – Monarda; catmint – Nepeta; basil – Ocimum; oregano – Origanum; Russian sage – Perovskia; Jerusalem sage – Phlomis; obedient plant – Physostegia; Swedish ivy – Plectranthus; rosemary – Rosmarinus; teak tree – Tectona; germander – Teucrium; thyme – Thymus; coleus – Solenostemon; chaste tree – Vitex) Mazaceae (Mazus) [recently removed from Phrymaceae] Phrymaceae (monkey flower – Mimulus; lopseed – Phryma) Paulowniaceae (empress tree – Paulownia) Orobanchaceae (ground-cone – Boschniakia/Kopsiopsis; paintbrush – Castilleja; birdbeak – Cordylanthus/Chloropyron; owl clover – Orthocarpus; lousewort, Indian warrior – Pedicularis; yellow rattle – Rhinanthus; dwarf owl clover – Triphysaria; gerardia – Agalinis; false foxglove – Aureolaria; beech-drops – Epifagus; eyebright – Euphrasia; broomrape – Orobanche; eyebright – Parentucellia; witchweed – Striga) Lentibulariaceae (butterwort – Pinguicula; bladderwort – Utricularia) Acanthaceae (bear’s-breech – Acanthus; zebra plant – Aphelandra; black mangrove – Avicennia; mosaic plant, nerve plant – Fittonia; shrimp plant – Justicia; Ruellia; black-eyed Susan vine – Thunbergia) Bignoniaceae (cross vine – Bignonia; Catalpa tree; trumpet creeper – Campsis; desert willow – Chilopsis; hardy gloxinia – Incarvillea; Jacaranda; sausage tree – Kigelia; yellow trumpet vine – Macfadyena; trumpet tree, West Indian-boxwood – Tabebuia; orange bells, cape honeysuckle – Tecoma) Verbenaceae (verbena, vervain – Verbena; golden dewdrop – Duranta; Lantana; lemon verbena – Lippia; Glandularia; queen’s wreath – Petraea; Phyla) Martyniaceae (cat’s claw – Martynia, unicorn plant, devil’s claw – Ibicella, Proboscidea) Campanulids (Euasterids II)
Aquifoliaceae (holly, maté – Ilex) Campanulaceae (bluebells, harebell – Campanula; calico flower – Downingia; Githopsis; Heterocodon; Howellia; water lobelia – Lobelia; threadstem – Nemacladus; Porterella; Venus’ looking glass – Triodanis; ladybells – Adenophora; balloon flower – Platycodon; Trachelium; royal bluebell – Wahlenbergia) Menyanthaceae (buckbean, bogbean – Menyanthes; deer cabbage – Nephrophyllidium; floating Subfamily Mutisioideae (trailplant, pathfinder – Adenocaulon) Cynareae, thistle tribe (thistles – Cirsium; sawwort – Saussurea; burdock – Arctium; Carduus; safflower – Carthamus; knapweed, cornflower – Centaurea; globe artichokes – Cynara; globe thistle – Echinops; Scotch thistle – Onopordum; milk thistle – Silybum; immortelle – Xeranthemum) Cichorieae, lettuce tribe (Agoseris; wirelettuce – Chaetadelpha; endive, hawksbeard – Crepis/Askellia; carved seed – Glyptopleura; hawkweed – Hieracium; Hypochaeris; lettuces – Lactuca; skeleton plant – Lygodesmia; Malacothrix; Microseris/Uropappus; Nothocalais; Prenanthes; Stephanomeria; horned dandelion – Taraxacum; cupid’s dart – Catananche; skeleton weed – Chondrilla; chicory – Cichorium; sow thistle – Sonchus; salsify – Tragopogon;) Anthemideae, anthemis tribe (yarrow – Achillea; tarragon, sagewort, wormwood, mugwort – Artemesia/Sphaeromeria; chamomile (tea herb), pineapple weed – Matricaria; feverfew, tansy – Tanacetum; mayweed – Anthemus; chamomile (ground cover) – Chamaemelum; painted daisy, marguerites, chrysanthemums – Chrysanthemum; Shasta daisy, oxeye daisy – Leucanthemum; lavender cotton – Santolina) Astereae, aster tribe (Baccharis; Boltonia; great northern aster – Canadanthus; rabbitbrush – Chrysothamnus, Ericameria; horseweed – Conyza; beach aster – Corethrogyne; hoary aster – Dieteria; fleabane – Erigeron; wayside aster – Eucephalus; aster – Eurybia; gumweed – Grindelia; matchweed – Gutierrezia; Hazardia; goldenaster – Heterotheca; stiff-leaved aster – Ionactis; Nestotus; Oreostemma; golden weed – Pyrrocoma, Stenotus; Sericocarpus, Tonestus; goldenrod – Solidago/Euthamia; asters - Symphytotrichum; Townsend daisy – Townsendia; Aster; English daisy – Bellis; goldenaster – Chrysopsis; rabbit brush – Ericameria; blue marguerite – Felicia; mojave aster, Tahoka daisy – Machaeranthera;) [Note: the genus Aster is native to Eurasia. Oregon and other North American natives have been re-named as other genera.] Calenduleae, calendula tribe (pot marigold – Calendula; African daisy – Osteospermum, Asteraceae, Subfamily Asteroideae (continued) Eupatorieae, gayfeather tribe (western boneset – Ageratina; tassel flower – Brickellia; floss flower – Ageratum; agrimony, Joe-pye weed – Eupatorium; gayfeather – Liatris; climbing boneset – Mikania; Stevia) Gnaphalieae, pussytoes tribe (pearly everlasting – Anaphalis; pussytoes – Antennaria; everlasting, cudweed – Gnaphalium; dwarf cudweed – Hesperevax; woolyheads – Psilocarphus; Stylocline; strawflower – Helichrysum; elecampane, yellowhead – Inula; camphorweed – Pluchea) Helenieae, helenium tribe (blanket flower – Gaillardia; sneezeweed – Helenium) Heliantheae tribe, sunflower tribe (starburr – Acanthospermum; ragweed – Ambrosia; Arnica; balsamroot – Balsamorhiza; beggarticks – Bidens; Blepharipappus; rosinweed – Calycadenia; dustymaiden – Chaenactis; Coreopsis; marsh elder – Cyclachaena/Iva; wooly sunflower – Eriophyllum; Helianthella; Jerusalem artichoke, sunflower – Helianthus; Columbia cutleaf – Hymenopappus; rubberweed – Hymenoxys; Jaumea; hareleaf – Lagophylla; goldfields – Lasthenia; tidytips – Layia; tarweeds – Madia/Centromadia/Hemizonella /Hemizonia/Kyhosia; Raillardella; black-eyed Susan – Rudbeckia; mule’s ears – Wyethia; cocklebur – Xanthium; Cosmos; Dahlia; Hawaiian silverswords – Argyroxiphium; marigolds – Tagetes; compass plant – Silphium; cocklebur – Xanthium; Mexican hat, prairie coneflower – Ratibida; purple coneflower – Echinacea; chocolate daisy – Berlandiera; Mexican sunflower – Tithonia; quickweed – Galinsoga; Zinnia) Senecioneae, senecio tribe (silvercrown – Cacaliopsis; spring gold – Crocidium; alpinegold – Hulsea; silverback – Luina; ragwort – Packera; dusty miller, cineraria, groundsels – Senecio; silvercrown – Cacaliopsis; tasselflower, Flora’s paintbrush – Emilia; burnweed – Erechtites; western coltsfoot, butterbur – Petasites; horsebrush – Tetradymia) Escalloniales – Escalloniaceae (Escallonia) Adoxaceae (elderberry, elder – Sambucus; snowball bush, arrowwood, high bush cranberry, western wayfaring tree – Viburnum; moschatel – Adoxa) Subfamily Caprifolioideae (honeysuckle, twinberry – Lonicera; coralberry, snowberry – Subfamily Diervilloideae (bush honeysuckle – Diervilla; Weigela) Subfamily Dipsacoideae (giant scabious – Cephalaria; teasel – Dipsacus; blue buttons – Knautia; pincushion flower – Scabiosa) Subfamily Linnaeoideae (twinflower – Linnaea; beauty bush – Kolkwitzia; Abelia) Subfamily Valerianoideae (sea blush – Plectritis; valerian – Valeriana; red valerian – Centranthus; corn salad - Valerianella) Araliaceae – (western aralia – Aralia; pennywort – Hydrocotyle; devil’s club – Oplopanax; Fatsia; English ivy – Hedera; ginseng – Panax; umbrella plant – Schefflera; Chinese rice paper plant - Tetrapanax) Apiaceae or Umbelliferae (Angelica; water parsnip – Berula; thoroughwax – Bupleurum; water hemlock – Cicuta; hemlock parsley – Conioselinum; Cymopterus; carrot, wild carrot – Daucus; eryngo – Eryngium; silvertop – Glehnia; cow parsnip – Heracleum; lovage – Ligusticum; biscuit root, desert parsley – Lomatium; water parsley – Orogenia; wild sweet cicely – Osmorhiza; yampa – Perideridia; sanicle – Sanicula; hemlock water parsnip – Sium; Ranger’s buttons – Sphenosciadium; umbrellawort – Tauschia; hedgeparsley – Torilis, Yabea; alexanders – Zizia; bishop’s weed – Aegopodium; mountain caraway – Aletes; dill – Anethum; chervil – Anthriscus; celery – Apium; caraway – Carum; poison hemlock – Conium; coriander – Coriandrum; cumin – Cuminum; fennel – Foeniculum; sweet cicely – Myrrhis; alpine parsley – Oreoxis; parsnip – Pastinaca; parsley – Petroselinum) Resources used in preparing this list.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105-121. Haston, Elspeth, J. E. Richardson, P. F. Stevens, M. W. Chase, and D. J. Harris. 2009. The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 128-131. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 141 (4): 399-436. Gilkey, Helen M. and La Rea J. Dennis. 2001. Handbook of Northwestern Plants. Revised edition. OSU Judd, Walter S., Christopher Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Peter F. Stevens, and Michael J. Donoghue. 2008. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. 3rd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. Oregon Flora Project website: (Accessed Dec. 2013) Mabberley, D. J. 2008. Mabberley’s Plant-Book: A portable dictionary of plants, their classification, and uses. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4. Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. (Accessed Dec. 2013) USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, accessed 12/2013 ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Wikipedia was used for further information on numerous genera.



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