Pine forest health & safety policy

Table of contents
Originally compiled June 2010
Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd (PFPPS) aims to make our children, staf and parents aware of health and safety issues, and create an environment where the safety of everyone, especial y our children, is of the utmost importance, where risk assessment takes place on a continuing basis, and where hazards and risks are minimised to the utmost of our abilities in order to enable our children to thrive.
Mr Keith Waddel is the school's Health & Safety Of icer. He reports directly to the Chairman of the Board of Directors and simultaneously to the school Principal. He is empowered to manage the daily processes relating to heath and safety, from risk assessment and monitoring through to purchases and supervision. He monitors the employed Security Guard and maintains the security of the entrance. He wil , however, have to inform the Chairman and the Principal of his intentions before any processes are changed, purchases made, or work carried out.
1. Risk Assessment and Risk Management as an agenda item at al Board Meetings.
2. Separate quarterly risk assessment meetings with the Health & Safety Of icer, our HR Manager and 3. Weekly checking of hazards and risks by the Health & Safety Of icer, both indoors (including al classrooms, toilet blocks, staf quarters, kitchen, storerooms and administration areas) and outdoors (including playgrounds, perimeter security, swimming pool and driveways), the determination of Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd importance and scheduling of work to be done, and the development of an action plan to carry out such work, with timescales and funding requirements.
4. Daily checking of indoor hazards (such as plug covers, lightbulbs, water leaks, fire dril ropes, etc) and outdoor hazards (loose playground equipment, rusted metal, worn ropes, uneven paving, loose branches, etc).
We maintain lists on file of health and safety issues, which are checked: • daily during school hours• weekly• quarterly – when the full quarterly risk assessment is carried out INSURANCE COVER
We have full and comprehensive public liability insurance and employer's liability insurance cover via Freshfields Insurance Brokers (Pty) Ltd (insurer: Santam Limited).
• We conduct a bi-annual staf “refresher course” for al current staf and use the same agenda for al staf induction training as and when we hire new team members. This training extends to ALL staf involved and includes a clear explanation of health and safety issues so that al adults adhere to the policies and understand the shared responsibility.
• Records are kept of these induction training meetings and al staf are required to sign the records to confirm they understood the contents of the meeting and that they wil adhere to the rules.
• We compile a notice and document for al current parents and al new parents as and when they enrol their children into the school, detailing our processes and procedures and the parent's involvement with regard to perimeter security, safe driving practices on the school driveways and vigilance in informing teachers of anything they may find to be a risk or hazard.
• We ensure that children are continuously made aware of health and safety issues through discussions, games and learning, planned activities (such as the quarterly fire dril ) and routines.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY - 2010
• Only persons who have been screened and checked for criminal records have unsupervised access to the children including helping them with toileting.
• Al new staf members are suitably qualified and al qualifications are verified with the relevant • Al children are supervised by adults at al times, except toilet trips for the Bees & Owls (in anticipation of the standards at primary and prep schools).
• Al children wil be handled with love and care, and no physical force may be exerted on any child unless it it in a gentle and caring manner. A frustrated teacher or assistant must leave the room if she feels she is or is seen to be under stress or in an agitated state. No child may be manhandled in any way whatsoever as per the school's (and not the teacher's or assistant's) standards. These standards are explained to staf during induction training as wel as during the annual refresher course. Failure to adhere to this rule results in an immediate dismissal (fol owing a Disciplinary Hearing) as per al teachers' and assistants' employment contracts.
• No adult is al owed to intimidate verbal y or raise her voice excessively in an agitated state to any child whatsoever. Failure to adhere to this rule results in an immediate dismissal (fol owing a Disciplinary Hearing) as per al teachers' and assistants' employment contracts.
The school is surrounded by wel maintained and regularly checked wal ing, pal isade fencing and electric fencing.
Currently there are 3 gates on the perimeter of the school. The delivery entrance (near the Owls class) is continual y kept locked under a padlock and topped with electric fencing. This gate can only be opened by the head groundsman and the Health & Safety Of icer. The Principal has an additional set of keys in case of a fire emergency where no-one else can assist. This gate is only used periodical y when access by truck is required for rubbish or rubble removal or delivery of large items. During these times, the security guard wil be present as wel as at least 1 groundsman at any one time.
The main entrance and exit gate is manned from 7.00am to 5.30pm on weekdays by a trained security guard. This guard is armed with a baton and always holds a tested panic button linked to a silent alarm which alerts ADT armed response. (The gate is manned by a groundsman from 6.30am to 7.00am, and from 5.30pm to 6.00pm for early and late drop-of s and col ections.) Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd The guard is only al owed to grant access to vehicles bearing a coded PFPPS security sticker displayed on its windscreen. These vehicles may gain free access to the school property.
The drivers of al other vehicles are required to sign a register, as wel as be granted access by the School Secretary who wil greet the visitor upon entrance to the school.
Al parents are required to instal a PFPPS security sticker on their vehicles and are required to order additional stickers for authorised persons who may regularly col ect children (eg., grandparents, drivers, etc).
Al school col ection services (such as School Link) are required to be registered with the school with the relevant documentation of children being col ected, with forms signed by parents, and with verbal confirmation of such agreements. These col ection services are required to col ect the respective children from the class teachers only, and after 2pm must sign a register when col ecting a child from Aftercare. Our Cowley Road pedestrian gate is open and manned by a groundsman from 7.00am to 8.15am and again from 1.30pm to 2.15pm. At al other times this gate is locked. Vehicles may park on the pavement and parents may gain access to the school on foot to either drop of or col ect their child. The groundsman is trained to only al ow in parents that he knows and anyone that he does not know is sent to the main entrance gate. He also carries a tested panic button at al times and is instructed to push the button should any incident occur.
The record of visitors and col ectors are kept on file indefinitely.
Al internal gates leading from the driveway and parking areas are unlocked during peak times which are 7.00am to 8.30am and 1.00pm to 2.00pm. At al other times these gates are locked and parents and visitors are required to gain access via the security gate at the school of ice. Parents with children in classes outside the main school block are required to walk their children to the respective classrooms through the main entrance area, out into the playground, and around the school, and not through the Woodpecker's classroom in the main building. No deviation from this rule is al owed. Should a parent be in a hurry, he/she may not leave the child in the school of ice and is required to take the child al the way to the respective class teacher. No staf members are al owed to meet or entertain personal visitors inside the school grounds during school hours on school days. These visitors are not al owed access unless there is an emergency which must be verified with the relevant staf member. This rule applies to ALL staf members.
In due course we shal be constructing an exit gate further along the gravel driveway in Ebury Avenue. This wil ease the traf ic congestion through the main gate during peak times. We wil update this document with the relevant safety details once the gate is operational.
• There is a strict 10km per hour speed limit on both school driveways. This speed is around fast walking speed for an adult and wil feel excessively slow for a driver or passenger in a vehicle. Young children are able to easily run out from between a car, into the driveway at any time, and al drivers need to be wary of this risk. PFPPS is required to monitor parents and visitors and wil fine repeat Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd of enders with a R500 speeding fine, the validity of which is determined at the discretion of the Principal, and which is added to the staf bonus scheme. This is a serious of ence and forms part of al new enrolment forms/contracts from January 2011. PFPPS cannot al ow any form of reckless driving on the school grounds. • Until the exit gate has been erected, al incoming traf ic has right of way through the main gate. Parents who are exiting the school are requested to reverse their vehicles if they have approached the gate and another vehicle is either waiting in the road or has driven up onto the driveway. This is because it is dangerous to have to reverse back into the road.
• The security guard assists where possible in directing traf ic. The security guard is “THE BOSS OF THE GATE” and al parents and visitors are required to obey his requests (in respect of the directing of traf ic) and to contain aggression and frustration as he is doing his duty as laid out by the school. • PFPPS cannot al ow any act of “road rage” or excessive aggression by parents in vehicles to other parents, staf , visitors and the security guard.
• The school has a contract with ADT Security Group which details armed response and emergency response timescales relating to the activation of any of the school's panic buttons and electric fence alarms. • PFPPS wil always have an armed contingent from ADT Security at any public events held at the school including the Fun Day and Super Soccer Day.
• The main entrance gate, the security gate leading to the main building and the entrance hal of the main building have CCTV cameras monitored by both the School Secretary and the Principal.
• We have begun an action plan in respect of erecting CCTV camera's in al areas of the school, both internal and external. At present the price of this project is limiting, however it has been added to the list of future capital expenditure projects which are being prioritised for a future date.
• The security guard has a regularly tested panic button on hand at al times which sets of a silent alarm which alerts ADT Security to any emergency.
• Low level windows are made of shatterproof glass.
• Children are not al owed to play near windows and both adults and children are not al owed to sit • Windows are al secured so that children cannot climb through them.
• Al classrooms have windows which can be opened to al ow for fresh air.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd • Al teachers and assistants are instructed to open and close doors slowly to prevent hitting a child or • Children are instructed to not play near closed doors in case of an abrupt opening.
• Al indoor surfaces are checked daily to ensure they are not uneven or damaged.
• Floors are checked daily for loose and dangerous items such as notice board tacks, nails, staples, etc.
• Tiled floors are cleaned at least once a day, using water and a cleaning product cal ed Pine Gel, sanitising and cleansing as much as possible.
• When floor tiles are being cleaned, “wet floor” signs wil be set on the wet parts until al areas are • Al carpets are deep cleaned by professional cleaners once a term.
• Carpets in classrooms are replaced every two years unless they are stil in good condition.
• Any spil or broken glass is cleaned immediately be it on any surface.
• Broken glass is cleaned by an assistant, or if in the kitchen by a kitchen assistant, by initial y clearing the area of people, col ecting large pieces of broken glass with gloved hands, vacuuming the area, and final y mopping with a damp rag.
• A sweeping brush and dustpan is provided in each classroom.
• Children and parents do not have unsupervised access to the kitchen.
• Al surfaces are clean and non-porous.
• There are separate facilities for hand-washing and for washing up.
• Antibacterial soap is used for hand-washing.
• Cleaning materials and other dangerous products are stored out of children's reach.
• The kitchens are deep cleaned twice a year.
• The oven and stove are cleaned wel everyday.
• No food is left out of a cupboard or fridge overnight.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd • Al old or broken utensils and plastic containers are replaced regularly.
• Kitchen surfaces and cutting boards are scrubbed with a bleach solution every afternoon.
• The kitchen staf wear protective head gear when preparing meals, and have to wash their hands • When dealing with food such as raw chicken, separate and specific chopping boards are used and kitchen staf have to wash their hands after handling such food-stuff.
• PFPPS only purchases food from approved and trusted suppliers.
• Al fresh ingredients are quality checked before being stored.
• We do not keep cooked food for more than one day in the fridge, and cooked food has to first cool down to room temperature before is it refrigerated. ELECTRICS & ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
• Al electrical equipment conforms to safety requirements and is checked regularly.
• Our meter cupboards are not accessible to children.
• Al electrical sockets, including those with double adaptors inserted, have plug covers.
• Al heaters are child friendly or are guarded.
• There are sufficient sockets to prevent overloading.
• Lighting is adequate in al areas.
• Light bulbs are checked daily and are replaced if need be on a daily basis.
• There are no live wires anywhere, either indoors or out.
• Al resources and equipment are packed away and stored in a way to prevent them accidental y • Dangerous tools and products are stored in such a way as to be inaccessible to children, either via a OUTDOOR AND PLAY AREAS
• Our outdoor area is securely fenced.
• Outdoor areas are kept clean and free of rubbish and pine cones on a daily basis.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd • Al playground equipment is checked on a daily basis by the teachers during playtime, to check for worn, rusted, frayed or broken elements.
• Al outdoor areas are checked on a weekly basis by the Health & Safety Of icer, who co-signs the checklist with the Principal. These signed checklists are kept on file.
• If anything is found to be unsafe, tape is placed around the object (red and white danger tape) to show that it is out of order, until it has been repaired. Children are briefed on the fact that the tape signifies danger, and at the Squirrels Centre, both the teachers and assistants are trained to keep the children away from temporarily dangerous equipment.
• Al sandpits are kept clean and covered on a daily basis when not in use.
• Al sandpits are maintained on a weekly basis with sandpit salt for disinfection purposes.
• Children are always monitored by adults when they are outdoors.
• Children are instructed to only keep to the paved paths when walking in the property. This is for safety's sake, as wel as for the sake of the grass.
• Children do not play outdoors if it is raining (or drizzling) or if there is lightning in the sky.
• Once it has rained, children do not play in the sandy playgrounds until they are dry (enough – • We do not use hazardous chemicals or weedkil ers – weeds in the lawn are removed by hand and weeds in the paving are pressure sprayed away.
• Al metal is painted regularly so as to not al ow any rusting.
• Al aftercare and extramural equipment is packed away indoors after every session.
• The Gross Motor Centre is kept clean on a daily basis.
• Al gross motor equipment is kept locked away in the storeroom attached to the Centre.
• The swimming pool is fenced.
• The gate in the fence is always kept locked unless the pool is in use or being cleaned.
• The gate has a mechanism which closes it automatical y.
• There is a net on the pool.
• Only qualified teachers (outsourced) are al owed to teach any form of swimming.
• The pool is out of bounds for everyone unless the times have been agreed by the Principal.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd As per the Tobacco Products Control Act, and the fact that the whole of the school property, including the outdoor areas, is a public place, there is a strict no smoking rule anywhere on the grounds.
• We regularly seek information from the Health Department to keep up to date with the latest health • Our daily routines encourage children to learn about personal hygiene.
• Children are required to wash their hands after using the toilet. • Children are required to wash their hands before snack time and lunch time.
• We encourage children to wash their hands as often as possible and a child with a cold wil have to wash his or her hands regularly throughout the day.
• We have instal ed hospital quality alcohol hand gel dispensers in each classroom which are to be used by teachers and assistants regularly. These are to be used after every nappy change and after each time a runny nose has been wiped for a child. These are not to be used to replace soap and water for dirty hands, but for protection from germs, bacteria and viruses.
• We train our children in keeping play and learning areas clean and even the Squirrels learn a “Tidy Up Time” song to promote the desire for a tidy environment. • Al indoor areas are cleaned per a daily cleaning routine and are checked by the Principal and the • Indoor cleaning is done using the correct cleaning products, including antibacterial where required.
• Al brooms, mops, cloths, sponges and dishtowels are checked weekly and replaced if too dirty or worn (both the Health & Safety Of icer and the Principal to check this weekly).
• We wash al sheets and towels on a weekly basis.
• Towels are checked on a daily basis and changed if dirty.
• Sheets are changed if any “accident” occurs.
• Mattresses are cleaned immediately and very wel if any “accident” occurs.
• Mattresses are replaced when necessary and reviewed on an annual basis.
• Mattresses are wiped clean every day.
• Al nappy changing areas are kept clean with a solution of Jik and water after every nappy clean, and assistants' hands are washed before and after each nappy change. • Dirty nappies are kept in a bin next to the changing station and removed twice a day.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd • Al toilets and potties are cleaned with disinfectant, antiseptic cleaning products on a daily basis.
• Al potties are cleaned and sprayed with disinfectant after each use.
• Dustbins are cleared daily and washed out on a weekly basis.
• Classrooms are kept dusted, vacuumed, wiped and disinfected every day.
• Windows are cleaned once a month unless there has been a storm and are visibly dirty.
• If an “accident” occurs, where a child vomits, immediately the mess is cleaned up and disinfected. • The dining room is cleaned after every meal, al tables wiped down and al food col ected of the • The dining room floor is mopped once a day.
• There is always a box of tissues available in al areas of the school and once used, tissues are • The children's toilets are cleaned regularly during the day and a roster is kept in each toilet which is completed by the cleaner certifying that he has done the job at the particular time. These rosters are kept on file.
• Al children's toilets feature an industrial box of “Sani Wipes” which may be used to quickly clean the seat of a toilet before or after use – as per the discretion of the teacher or assistant.
• Toilet rol s are replaced by assistants immediately and spare rol s are kept on hand either in or near ACTIVITES
• Before we purchase any new equipment, we ensure that the equipment is made for the correct age group, has been approved by the SABS (or relevant international body) and has al the correct pieces.
• Al purchased equipment is checked first for signs of weakness before being put out for use.
• The layout of play equipment both indoors and outdoors is always to al ow for an adult to move freely between children and activities.
• Al equipment is regularly checked for cleanliness and safety and any dangerous items are repaired or • Al materials, including paint and glue, are non-toxic.
• Materials (sand, playdough, etc) are always clean and suitable for children's play.
• Physical play is always supervised.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd SLEEPING AND NAP TIME
• Napping children are checked regularly and an adult is present in the room at al times.
• Each child is al ocated his/her own mattress (with its own mattress protector) which is named and kept the same for each child for the year – never shared. • The Squirrels have “cots” which are raised of the ground and mattresses which are breathable to • Parents supply blankets and sleeping aids for their children and these are sent home with the child • Nap time is always at the same time for respective age groups.
• Al children in the classes that partake in a nap time have to nap, or at least lie down and stay quiet. This al ows the other children to sleep in a quiet and calm environment.
• Staf who prepare and handle food receive appropriate training and understand and comply with food safety and hygiene regulations.
• Al food and drink is stored appropriately.
• Adults never place hot drinks within reach of children and al teachers and assistants may not drink • Snack and meal times are appropriately supervised and children do not walk around with food and • Fresh drinking water is available at al times and if water is cut of at the mains for any reason, there is enough drinking water stored in the kitchen to last a day.
• Parents are to inform the school of any child's food al ergies and the teachers are responsible to handle these circumstances on a daily basis. Parents are to supply special food if required.
• Children are taught to be respectful during meals times and a Grace is always sung/said before anyone begins eating and no rambunctious behaviour is al owed.
• PFPPS only uses reputable and reliable companies who may bring animals onto the school property.
• Animals must be tame and not pose a safety risk.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd FIRE SAFETY
• The fire dril is practised once a term.
• There are two fire dril congregation points; one on each side of the property, both leading out of the school, onto the pavement, with the final meeting point being outside the main gate.
• The Principal walks around with a hand-held bel , clanging it loudly to alert the school to a fire.
• The security guard wil then press the panic button to set of the silent alarm and alert the • Al children are taught to remain calm.
• Al children are taught weekly to walk around holding onto a knotted rope which keeps them al in single file and spaced out correctly. The weekly training al ows them to learn to walk in this fashion, so when there is a fire dril there is no panic or crying – they merely think they are going for a walk on the rope.
• Al classrooms have a fire escape diagram either on the door or notice board.
• Fire equipment is placed around the school as per the fire equipment company and is serviced • Records are kept of the fire dril s and fire equipment services.
• Medicines brought by parents for their children have to be signed in to the Register held with the • The Medicine Register has to detail how and when medicines are to be given as wel as the quantities. Medicine Registers are kept indefinitely. • If any administration of prescribed medicine requires medical knowledge (eg, insulin), individual training must be provided to the teacher by a medical professional at a cost to the respective parents.
• Medicines in this regard are kept out of reach of children, either in a locked cupboard or out of arm's • Al teachers are trained in First Aid including CPR and are in possession of a certificate with the details. This First Aid training is specifical y designed to be used for toddlers and young children and a refresher course takes place every year.
• There is a simple first aid kit in every classroom and a more detailed kit in the principal's of ice.
• The classroom kits contain antiseptic liquid and ointment, plasters, tweezers, disposable gloves, alcohol-free wipes and Arnica for bruises.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd • The principal's kit contains the same, plus stomach medicine (cramps, diarrhoea, etc), Bactroban, Panado tablets, stronger headache pil s for adults, gauze, various sized bandages and plasters, safety pins, eye drops, burn dressing, aftersun, a thermometer, antihistamine pil s and syrup and throat lozenges.
• The first aid kits are stored in closed cupboards, easily accessible to teachers and out of reach of • The first aid kits are checked each term and restocked regularly should it be required. Old medicines are disposed of and new ones purchased.
• When they enrol their children parents sign a permission clause which al ows PFPPS to seek emergency treatment and medical advice. This is for emergencies or if the school is unable to contact a parent. • Teachers complete an Accident/Incident form should anything happen during the day, detailing what happened and the action taken. This form is given to the Principal who signs it and then sends to the Secretary who files it in the respective child's file.
• Parents are notified by telephone during the course of the morning if any accident has occurred no matter how smal (eg., a scratch while playing).
• Teachers have to write down the detail of the accident and what action was taken (even if just Arnica was applied) in the parent's communication book the same day as the telephone cal is made.
• Regular reviews are made of any repetitive accidents/incidents with hazards identified and an action • Al major il nesses, accidents, dangerous occurrences, and major incidents are reported to the school Board of Directors for remedial action to be taken.
• Any teacher or assistant (or any member of staf ) found applying dangerous physical force to (manhandling) a child is in line for immediate dismissal after a disciplinary hearing as per her contract.
• Our policy is that sick children, especial y if they are on medication, should be kept at home for a few days in order to limit the exposure of the other children and teachers to the virus or bacteria.
• If a child seems to become il whilst at school, parents are notified via telephone to come and col ect • If a parent is unable to col ect his/her child, or the school in unable to contact the parent, the child is sent to the Bug Room in the main building and kept under supervision until such time as the parent col ects the child. The child wil be required to lie on the bed during this time. Although PFPPS is required by law to have a “bug room” in the Squirrels' Centre, we believe that the children there are too little and general y wil need to be col ected by a parent immediately, and until such time as a parent arrives, wil sit on a teacher's or assistant's lap wherever they feel the most secure.
• If a child shows signs of being very il , with a very high temperature or is showing signs of distress, and PFPPS is unable to contact the parents, the school wil contact the local General Practitioner for Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd assistance as per the signed enrolment forms. This process fol ows through to hospitalisation if required and is also a part of the signed enrolment form.
• Adults are provided with assistance should they require to move or lift anything heavy, large or dangerous. The Health & Safety Of icer is contacted to organise the assistance.
• Pregnant teachers and assistants are not al owed to lift anything heavy, including children, thus temporarily limiting their job functions (eg., changing nappies).
• Staf sickness and their involvement in accidents is recorded. The records are reviewed termly to identify any issues which need to be addressed.
• Staf are also required to stay at home for a couple of days should they be il .
• When any adult is required to change a lightbulb or climb onto the roofs of the buildings, they are provided with checked, safety equipment to do so.
• Al warning signs are clear.
• Teachers and assistants do not leave on their own nor remain in any of the buildings on their own • Teachers are provided with annual 'Flu shots as wel as daily ViralChoice capsules during winter to try to protect them from seasonal il nesses.
Pine Forest has a specific policy in place in respect of dealing with staf , parents and children who may be HIV positive; including a code of non discrimination, procedures, hygiene, precautions, first aid, HIV/AIDs education, attitudes and counseling. To receive a copy of this policy please send a request to the Principal's of ice.
• Adults authorised to col ect children from school.
• Vehicle particulars owned by such adults.
• Names, contact details and addresses of emergency contacts.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd • The al ergies, dietary requirements, and il nesses of individual children.
• The times and attendance of children, staf and visitors.
• Accidents.
• Incidents.
• Il nesses.
• Administration of medication.
• Signed enrolment forms.
• Indemnity forms.
In addition, the fol owing documentation in relation to health and safety is in place: • Risk Assessments.
• Record of visitors.
• Fire safety procedures.
• Vehicle records and list of named drivers.
Strictly private and confidential Pine Forest Pre-Primary School (Pty) Ltd



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Bruno Maria Gabriella nata a Lecce il 16-10-58 e ivi residente alla via Pordenone, 21. tel. n. 0832/345712, dichiara sotto la propria responsabilità, anche ai sensi e per gli effetti di cui al D.P.R. 445/00 di cui dichiara di conoscere le sanzioni previste dagli artt. 74 e seg., il seguente curriculum formativo professionale: A) - Laurea in medicina e chirurgia , conseguita presso l

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