PROGRAM NOTES Messa da Requiem [Requiem Mass] Giuseppe Verdi Born 10 October, 1813 in Le Roncole, near Busseto, Parma, Italy Died 27 January, 1901 in Milan, Italy History lesson Italy as we know it today, in its unique boot-shaped form plus the two large islands of Sicily and Sardinia, did not come into being as a political entity until the second half of the nineteenth century
Drugs and alcohol in the workplaceEFFECTS OF DRUGS AND ALCOHOL IN THE WORKPLACE
Alcohol is defined as any drink that contains alcohol and temporarily impairs a person's physical or mental capacity.
Evidence indicates that impairment of mental and motor functions occurs at a blood alcohol level of about 0.03% which is equivalent to the
consumption of two standard drinks per hour. The ef ects vary depending on individual tolerance and in general women have a lower tolerance There are many workers who are professional y employed as drivers who are covered by blood alcohol restrictions. The legal blood alcohol limit for driving in SA is 0.05% which can be reached by a 70kg individual from three standard drinks in one hour. The legal limit for drivers of heavy Initial stimulation, excitement then depressant; Impairment of co-ordination, judgement, intel ectual capacity and ability to act quickly. Hangover-headache, shakiness, nausea and vomiting. In the longer term toxic to the brain, liver, heart and stomach. The ef ects of alcohol vary according to: Alcohol is broken down by the liver at a rate of approximately 0.01 % per hour. Nothing can speed up the work of the liver - not black coffee, cold showers, exercise, vomiting or any other remedy.
As a minimum, al legislative requirements associated with driving and alcohol consumption must be adhered to. It is further recommended that the
consumption of alcohol prior to driving, or in between periods of driving, be avoided entirely. Consuming alcohol, or alcohol in conjunction with other drugs, is known to increase the risk of accident. Consuming moderate amounts of alcohol can impact on skil s necessary for driving.
Drugs are defined as a chemical substance, regardless of whether it is legal or il egal, which may have the ability to impair a person's
physical or mental capacity. These may include prescribed drugs, or non-prescribed drugs such as panadeine or cold/flu tablets and
il icit drugs such as, speed, heroin, amphetamines, LSD, cocaine, ecstasy, marijuana, etc.
The tranquil isers listed below are used to reduce anxiety and sleeplessness. They cause drowsiness and impair motor
Poly-Tech Industrial Services - 27/04/2012 4:29:37 PM coordination, judgement, reaction time and intel ectual capacity. The effects are greatly increased when mixed with alcohol. Although they are prescribed drugs they are often obtained il egal y and misused. Minor tranquil isers or benzodiazapines (on prescription)(valium, serepax, rohypnol) Barbiturates (on prescription) (amylobarbitone,butobarbitone, phenobarbitone) Non-barbiturates (on prescription) (methaqualone,glutethimide, chloral hydrate)
The drugs listed below relieve pain and produce euphoria and can impair the ability to drive and operate machinery. They can cause nausea and
vomiting, constipation and depress the breathing (the cause of death from overdose). Users develop both a tolerance and dependence very Codeine (on prescription and over the counter mixed with aspirin or paracetamol)
This group includes aspirin and paracetamol. In recommended doses this group has no ef ects that could af ect the capacity to work safely.
Stimulants are drugs that elevate the mood and wakefulness but have a variety of negative side ef ects such as fatigue, restlessness and
Amphetamines (il egal, or on prescription)
Known as "speed". Although amphetamines increase alertness and delay fatigue, actual performance can be impaired. In the short term unwanted
effects include restlessness, palpitations, headache, tremors and sleeplessness. Longer term use can produce paranoia and hal ucinations.
Cocaine (il egal)
Produces euphoria and excitement. As the dose increases can cause anxiety, confusion, rapid pulse, convulsions, nausea and vomiting. Longer
Causes increase in metabolism and body temperature and can cause headaches, insomnia, fine tremors and impatient and aggressive behaviour. High dosage (above six cups of cof ee per day) can cause chronic insomnia, persistent anxiety and depression and upset stomach.
Known as 'ecstasy'. Effects include, an increase in blood pressure, pulse and confidence, sweating, teeth grinding,
nausea, anxiety and paranoia. High doses can cause hal ucinations, irrational behaviour, fits and vomiting.
Poly-Tech Industrial Services - 27/04/2012 4:29:37 PM
Hal ucinogens are capable of producing profound alteration of perception and thought processes.
Cannabis (il egal)
Known as pot, dope, marijuana, hashish. In the short term can impair motor coordination, short term memory, tracking ability and sensory functions
and perception. In the longer term it may cause decreased sperm count and motility, interfere with ovulation and prenatal development and impair immune responses. (Can also be classified as a depressant).
Known as acid. Profound alteration to perception and sensory functions.
Antihistamines are prescribed or purchased over the counter as al ergy or cold remedies. They can cause drowsiness and should not be mixed
Inhalants are liquid or aerosol products such as petrol, solvents or glues. These are sometimes used by individuals to get "high" or can be inhaled
inadvertently at work. The ef ects include drowsiness, disorientation, anxiety and tension, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to sunlight, eye irritation and double vision. Inhalants can cause death from arrhythmia irregular heart beat) or suf ocation.
These chemicals can produce ef ects similar to tranquil isers. Effects include, drowsiness, slowed reaction time, headache, giddiness, confusion, ataxia, slurred speech and convulsions. Can also produce flu' like symptoms and impairment of vision. When mixed with alcohol the effects are
In high doses these chemicals have a stimulant effect, producing poor coordination and excitability. Over exposure can cause violent convulsions,
Solvents are used to dilute solid chemicals and for cleaning. Solvents act as depressants. Effects include slowed reaction time, poor coordination,
dizziness, headache, nausea, tiredness and in higher doses confusion and reduction of muscle strength (peripheral neuropathy). The effects can be compounded if an individual is exposed to a mixture of solvents. The adverse effects may be increased if mixed with alcohol. Poly-Tech Industrial Services - 27/04/2012 4:29:37 PM Drug Detection Periods
Amphetamines (speed, ecstasy, cold & flu tablets) Cannabinoids (THC) – (marijuana, pot, grass) Infrequent user: up to 4 days Chronic / frequent user: 30 days or longer Blood pressure tablets, anti-inflammatories (eg Celebrex) Please note: These guidelines are not applied to any individual or situation: guidelines represent averages only Poly-Tech Industrial Services - 27/04/2012 4:29:37 PM
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