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Microsoft word - second yearRCPIOP SECOND YEAR
1. PHARMACEUTICS II
Theory (75 hours)
1. Dispensing Pharmacy:
(i) Prescriptions –Reading and understanding of prescription; Latin terms
commonly used (Detailed study is not necessary), Modern methods of prescribing, adoption of metric system. Calculations involved in dispensing. (ii) Incompatibilities in Prescriptions –Study of various types of
incompatibilities –physical, chemical and therapeutic. (iii) Posology—Dose and Dosage of drugs, Factors influencing dose,
Calculations of doses on the basis of age, sex and surface area .Veterinary doses.
2. Dispensed Medications:
(Note: A detailed study of the following dispensed medication is necessary.
Methods of preparation with theoretical and practical aspects, use of
appropriate containers and closures. Special labelling requirements and
storage conditions should be high –lighted).
(i) Powders –Types of powders –Advantages and disadvantages of
powders, Granules, Cachets and Tablet triturates. Preparation of different
types of powders encountered in prescriptions. Weighing methods, possible
errors in weighing, minimum weighable amounts and weighing of material
below the minimum weighable amount, geometric dilution and proper usage
and care of dispensing balance.
(ii) Liquid Oral Dosage Forms:
(a). Monophasic–Theoretical aspects including commonly used vehicles,
essential adjuvant like stabilizers, colourants and flavours, with examples. Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and Liquids for external administration or used on mucus membranes. RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
Ear Drops Nasal drops & Sprays Liniments Lotions. (b) Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms:
(i) Suspension (elementary study)----Suspensions containing diffusible
solids and liquids and their preparations. Study of the adjuvants used like thickening agents, wetting agents, their necessity and quantity to be incorporated. Suspensions of precipitate forming liquids like, tinctures, their preparations and stability. Suspensions produced by chemical reaction. An introduction to flocculated, non-flocculated suspension system.
(ii) Emulsions –Types of emulsions, identification of emulsion system,
formulation of emulsions, selection of emulsifying agents. Instabilities in emulsions. Preservation of emulsions. (iii) Semi –Solid Dosage Forms:
(a) Ointments–Types of ointments, classification and selection of
dermatological vehicles. Preparation and stability of ointments by the following processes: (i) Trituration (ii) Fusion (iii) Chemical reaction (iv) Emulsification.
(b) Pastes--- Difference between ointments and pastes, bases of pastes.
Preparation of pastes and their preservation. (c) Jellies –An introduction to the different types of jellies and their
(d) An elementary study of poultice.
(e) Suppositories and pessaries –Their relative merits and demerits, types
of suppositories, suppository bases, classification, properties, Preparation and packing of suppositories. Use of suppositories for drug absorption. (iv) Dental and Cosmetic Preparations:
Antiperspirants, Shampoos, Hair dressing and Hair removers. RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
(v) Sterile Dosage Forms:
(a) Parenteral dosage forms—Definitions, General requirements for
parenteral dosage forms. Types of parenteral formulations, vehicles,
adjuvants, processing, personnel, facilities and Quality control. Preparation
of Intravenous fluids and admixtures –Total parenteral nutrition, Dialysis
(b) Sterility testing, Particulate matter monitoring –Faulty seal
(c) Ophthalmic Products –Study of essential characteristics of different
ophthalmic preparations. Formulation additives, special precautions in
handling and storage of ophthalmic products.
► PRACTICAL ≈ PHARMACEUTICS II (100 hours)
Dispensing of at least 100 products covering a wide range of preparations such as mixtures, emulsions, lotions, liniments, E.N.T, preparations, ointments, suppositories, powders, incompatible prescriptions etc.
Books recommended :( Latest editions)
1. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
2. British Pharmacopoeia.
3. National Formularies (N.F.I, B.N.F)
4. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
5. Martindale Extra Pharmacopoeia.
RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
2 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTY-II
Theory (100 hours)
1. Introduction to the nomenclature of organic chemical systems with particular reference to heterocyclic system containing up to 3 rings. 2. The Chemistry of following Pharmaceutical organic compounds, covering their nomenclature, chemical structure, uses and the important Physical and Chemical properties (Chemical structure of only those compounds marked with asterisk (*). The stability and storage conditions and the different type of Pharmaceutical formulations of these drugs and their popular brand names.
Antiseptics and Disinfectants –Proflavine,* Benzalkoniumchloride, Cetrimide,
Chlorocresol*, Chloroxylene, Formaldehyde solution, Hexachlorophene, Liquified phenol, Nitrofurantoin. Sulfonamides-
Sulfadiazine,Sulfaguanidine*,Phthalysulfathiazole,Succinylsulfathiazole, Sulfadimethoxine, Antileprotic Drugs –Clofazimine, Thiambutosine, Dapsone*, Solapsone.
Anti-tubercular Drugs –Isoniazid*, PAS*, Streptomycin, Rifampicin,
Ethambutol*, Thiacetazone, Ethionamide, Cycloserine, Pyrazinamide*. Antiamoebic and Anthelmintic Drugs- Emetine, Metronidazole*, Halogenated
Antibiotics –Benzyl Penicillin*, Phenoxy methyl Penicillin*, Benzathine
Penicillin Ampicillin*, Cloxacillin, Carbenicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin , Erythromycin , Tetracycline, Cephalexin, Cephaloridine , Cephalothin, Griseofulvin , Chloramphenicol.
Antifungal agents –Undecylenic acid, Tolnaftate, Nystatin, Amphotericin,
RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
Phenobarbitone*,Butobarbitone,Cyclobarbitone,Nitrazepam,Glutethimide*, Methyprylone, Paraldehyde, Triclofos sodium. Anaesthetics
Methohexital sodium, Thiopental sodium, Trichloroethyelene.
Antidepressant Drugs—Amitriptyline, Nortryptyline, Imipramine *, Phenelzine,
Analeptics –Theophylline, Caffeine*, Coramine*, Dextroamphetamine.
Adrenergic Drugs –Adrenaline*, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline*, Phenylephrine
Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Ephedrine *, Pseudoephedrine.
Adrenergic Antagoinst –Tolazoline, Propranolol*, Practolol.
Cholinergic Drugs –Neostigmine*, Pyridostigmine, Pralidoxime, Pilocarpine,
Cholinergic Antagonists –Atropine*, Hysocine, Homatropine, Propantheline*,
Benzthiazide, Urea*, Mannitol *, Ethacrynic Acid.
Cardiovascular Drugs –Ethyl nitrite*, Glyceryl trinitrate, Alpha methyl dopa,
Hypoglycemic Agents –Insulin, Chlorpropamide*, Tolbutamide, Glibenclamide,
Coagulants and Anti –Coagulants –Heparin, Thrombin, Menadione*,
Local Anaesthetics –Lignocaine*, Procaine*, Benzocaine.
Promethazine, Cyproheptadine, Mepyramine, Pheniramine, Chlorpheniramine*.
Analgesics and Anti-pyretics–Morphin, Pethidine*, Codeine, Methadone,
Aspirin*, Paracetamol*, Analgin, Dextropropoxyphene, Pentazocine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory Agents –Indomethacin*, phenylbutazone*,
Oxyphenbutazone, Ibuprofen, Thyroxine and Antithyroids –Thyroxine*,
Methimazole, Methylthiouracil, Propylthiouracil.
Diagnostic Agents-Iopanoic Acid, Propyliodone, Sulfobromophthalein. Sodium
indigotindisulfonate, Indigo Carmine, Evans blue, Congo Red, Fluorescein Sodium . RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
*Anticonvulsants, cardiac glycosides, Antiarrhythmic antihypertensives &
Steroidal Drugs –Betamethazone, Cortisone, Hydrocortisone, prednisolone,
Progesterone, Testosterone, Oestradiol, Nandrolone.
Anti-Neoplastic Drugs –Actinomycins, Azathioprine, Busulphan, Chlorambucil,
Mercaptopurine, Methotrexate, Mytomycin.
Books Recommended :(Latest editions)
► PRACTICAL ≈ PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTY-II (75 hours)
1. Systematic qualitative testing of organic drugs involving Solubility determination, melting point and boiling point, detection of elements and functional groups (10 compounds). 2. Official identification test for certain groups of drugs included in the I.P like barbiturates, sulfonamides, phenothiazine, Antibiotic etc (8 compounds). 3. Preparation of three simple organic preparations. RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
3. PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY
Theory (75 hours)
1. Introduction to Pharmacology, scope of Pharmacology. 2. Routes of administration of drugs, their advantages and disadvantages. 3. Various processes of absorption of drugs and the factors affecting them, Metabolism, distribution and excretion of drugs. 4. General mechanism of drugs action and the factors which modify drug action. 5. Pharmacological classification of drugs. The discussion of drugs should (i) Drugs acting on the Central Nervous System:
(b) Analgesic antipyretics and non-steroidal anti –inflammatory drugs,
Narcotic analgesics, Antirheumatic and antigout remedies, Sedatives and Hypnotics, Psychopharmacological agents, anti convulsants, analeptics. (c) Centrally acting muscle relaxants and anti parkinsonism agents
(ii) Local Anaesthetics.
(iii) Drug acting on autonomic nervous system.
(a) Cholinergic drug, Anticholinergic drugs, anti cholinesterase drugs.
(b) Adrenergic drugs and adrenergic recepter blockers.
(c) Neurones blockers and ganglion blockers.
(d) Neuromuscular blockers, drugs used in myasthenia gravis.
(iv) Drugs acting on Eye, mydriatics, drugs used in glaucoma.
(v) Drugs acting on respiratory system –Respiratory stimulants,
Bronchodilators, Nasal decongestants, Expectorants and Antitussive agents.
(vi) Antacids, Physiological role of histamine and serotonin, Histamine and
RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
(vii) Cardio Vascular drugs, Cardiotonics, Antiarrhythmic agents,
Antianginal agents, Antihypertensive agents, Peripheral Vasodilators and drugs used in atherosclerosis.
(viii) Drugs acting on the blood and blood forming organs. Haematinics,
Coagulants and anti Coagulants, Haemostatics, Blood substitutes and plasma expanders. (ix) Drugs affecting renal function-Diuretics and antidiuretics.
(x) Hormones and hormone antagonists –hypoglycemic agents,
Antithyroid drugs, sex hormones and oral contraceptives, corticosteroids.
(xi) Drugs acting on digestive system-Carminatives, digestants Bitters,
Antacids and drugs used in Peptic ulcer, purgatives, and laxatives, Antidiarrhoeals, Emetics, Antiemetics, Anti-spasmodics. Chemotherapy of microbial disease-Urinary antiseptics, Sulphonamides,
Penicillins, Streptomycin, Tetracylines and other antibiotics, Antitubercular agents, Antifungal agents, antiviral drugs, antileprotic drugs. 6. Chemotherapy of protozoal diseases Anthelmintic drugs.
7. Chemotherapy of cancer.
8. Disinfectants and antiseptics.
A detailed study of the action of drugs on each organ is not necessary. RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
► PRACTICAL ≈ PHARMACOLOGY (50 hours)
The first six of the following experiments will be done by the students while the remaining will be demonstrated by the teacher. 1. Effect of K+, Ca++, acetylcholine and adrenaline on frog’s heart. 2. Effect of acetylcholine on rectus abdominis muscle of Frog and guinea pig ileum. 3. Effect on spasmogens and relaxants on rabbits intestine. 4. Effect of local anaesthetics on rabbit cornea. 5. Effect of mydriatics and miotics on rabbits eye. 6. To study the action of strychnine on frog. 7. Effect of digitalis on frog’s heart. 8. Effect of hypnotics in mice. 9. Effect of convulsants and anticonvulsant in mice or rats. 10. Test for pyrogen. 11. Taming and hypnosis potentiating effect of chlorpromazine in mice/rats. 12. Effect of diphenhydramine in experimentally produced asthma in guinea pigs. RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
4. PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE
Theory (50 hours)
1. Origin and nature of Pharmaceutical legislation in India, its scope and objectives. Evolution of the “Concept of Pharmacy” as an integral part of the Health Care System. 2. Principles and significance of Professional Ethics. Critical study of the code of Pharmaceutical Ethics drafted by Pharmacy Council of India. 3. Pharmacy Act, 1948 –The General study of the Pharmacy Act with special
reference to Education Regulations, working of State and Central Councils, constitution of these councils and functions, Registration procedures under the Act. 4. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940—General study of the Drugs and
Cosmetics Act and the Rules there under. Definitions and salient features related to retail and wholesale distribution of drugs. The powers of Inspectors, the sampling procedures and the procedure and formalities in obtaining licenses under the rule. Facilities to be provided for running a Pharmacy effectively. General study of the Schedules with special reference of schedules C, C1, F, G, J, H, P and X and salient features of labelling and storage condition of drugs. 5. The Drug and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act, 1945-
General study of the Act Objectives, special reference to be laid on Advertisements. Magic remedies and objectionable and permitted advertisements –disease which cannot be claimed to be cured. 6. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985-A brief study of the
act with special reference to its objectives, offences and punishment. 7. Brief introduction to the study of the following acts.
1. Latest Drugs (Price Control) Order in force. 2. Poisons Act 1919 (as amended to date) 3. Medicinal and Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act, 1995 (as amended 4. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 (as amended to date) BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest edition)
Bare Acts of the said laws published by Government. RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
5. DRUG STORE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Theory (75 hours)
Part –I Commerce (50 hours)
1. Introduction-Trade, Industry and Commerce, Functions and subdivision of
Commerce, Introduction of Elements of Economics and Management. 2. Forms of Business Organisations.
3. Channels of Distribution.
4. Drug House Management –Selection of Site, Space Lay-out and legal
requirements. Importance and objectives of Purchasing, selection of suppliers, credit information, tenders, contracts and price determination and legal requirements thereto. Codification, handling of drug stores and other hospital supplies. 5. Inventory Control –objects and importance, modern techniques like ABC,
VED analysis, the lead time, inventory carrying cost, safety stock, minimum and maximum stock levels, economic order quantity, scrap and surplus disposal.
6. Sales Promotion, Market Research, Salesmanship, qualities of a salesman,
7. Recruitment, training, evaluation and compensation of the pharmacist.
8 Banking and Finance Service and functions of the bank, Finance Planning
Part –II Accountancy (25 hours)
1. Introduction to the accounting concepts and conventions, Double entry Book
keeping, Different kinds of accounts.
2. Cash Book.
3. General Ledger and Trial Balance.
4. Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet.
5. Simple technique of analysing financial statements.
Introduction to Budgetting.
Books Recommended (Latest edition)
Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
6. HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACY
Theory (75 hours)
Part –I Hospital Pharmacy:
1. Hospitals Definition, Function, Classifications based on various criteria,
organisation, Management and Health delivery system in India. 2. Hospital Pharmacy:
(a) Definition (b) Functions and objectives of Hospital Pharmaceutical services. (c) Location, Layout, Flow chart of material and men. (d) Personnel and facilities requirements including equipments based on (e) Requirements and abilities required for Hospital pharmacists. 3. Drug Distribution system in Hospitals:
(b) In-patient services – (a) types of services (b) detailed discussion of unit Dose system, Floor ward stock system, Satellite pharmacy services, Central sterile services, Bed Side Pharmacy. 4. Manufacturing:
(a) Economical considerations, estimation of demand. (b) Sterile manufacture-large and small volume parenterals, facilities, requirements, layout production planning, man-power requirements. (c) Non-sterile manufacture –Liquid orals, externals-bulk concentrates. (d) Procurement of stores and testing of raw materials. 5. Nomenclature and uses of surgical instruments and Hospital Equipments and 6. P.T.C (Pharmacy Therapeutic Committee),Hospital Formulary System and their organisation, functioning, composition. 7. Drug Information service and Drug Information Bulletin. 8. Surgical dressing like cotton, gauze, bandages and adhesive tapes including their pharmacopoeial tests for quality. Other hospital supply e.g. I.V sets B.G sets, Ryals tubes, Catheters, Syringes etc. RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
9. Application of computer in maintenance of records, inventory control, medication monitoring, drug information and data storage and retrieval in hospital and retail pharmacy establishments. Part –II : Clinical Pharmacy.
1. Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy Practice –Definition, scope.
2. Modern dispensing aspects –Pharmacists and Patient counselling and advice
for the use of common drugs, medication history. 3. Common daily terminology used in the Practice of Medicine. 4. Disease, manifestation and pathophysiology including salient symptoms to understand the disease like Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cardiovascular diseases, Epilepsy, Diabetes, Peptic Ulcer, Hypertension.
5. Physiological parameters with their significance.
6. Drug Interactions:
(a) Definition and introduction.
(b) Mechanism of Drug Interaction.
(c) Drug –drug interaction with reference to analgesics, diuretics, cardiovascular
drugs, Gastro-intestinal agents, Vitamins and Hypoglycemic agents.
(d) Drug –food interaction.
7. Adverse Drug Reactions.:
(a) Definition and Significance.
(b) Drug –induced diseases and Teratogenicity.
8. Drugs in Clinical Toxicity –Introduction, general treatment of poisoning,
systematic antidotes. Treatment of insecticide poisoning, heavy metal poison, Narcotic drugs, Barbiturate, Organophosphours poisons.
9. Drug dependences, Drug abuse, addictive drugs and their treatment,
10. Bio–availability of drugs, including factors affecting it.
Books recommended (Latest editions)
1. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
RCPIOP SECOND YEAR
► PRACTICAL ≈ HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACY (50 hours)
2. Testing of raw materials used in (1). 4. Sterilization of surgical instruments, glass ware and other hospital supplies. 5. Handling and use of data processing equipments.
Die Arnika Apotheke präsentiert auf der Naturheilkunde-Messe CAM 2012 in Düsseldorf individuelle Therapiekonzepte Therapeuten verfolgen das Ziel, Ihre Patienten nach neuester wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis optimal zu versorgen. Dabei begrenzt das starre Angebot an Fertigarzneimitteln häufig die Möglichkeiten einer individuellen Therapie. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse werden industriell