Prevalence and chemotherapy of helminthiasis in parrots at
Khan et al. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 20(3), 2010, Page: 189- J1.9A2nim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010 ISSN: 1018-7081 PREVALENCE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF HELMINTHIASIS IN PARROTS AT LAHORE ZOO, PAKISTAN
M. A. Khan, M. S. Khan, M. Shafee* and J. A. Khan
Department of Medicine, UVAS, Lahore, *CASVAB, University of Balochistan, Quetta.
Corresponding author email; email@example.com
A total of 130 faecal samples were collected from various breeds of parrots. Eighty eight samples were found positive for
single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia galli. Faecal samples were examined for counting of
egg/gram of faeces using McMaster egg counting technique having overall prevalence of 67.70 % with individual
relative percentage as 73.86 and 26.14 respectively.The birds were divided into four groups; group A, B, C and D. Group
A was treated with albendazole, group B with Levamisole, Group C was kept as untreated infected control and group D
was untreated and uninfected control. Albendazole was found to be highly effective (96.33%) as compared to levamisole
(84.90%) against gastro-intestinal nematodes in parrots. Key words: Helminthiasis, Enteritis, Chemotherapy, Albendazole, Levamisole INTRODUCTION
prevention of histomonosis (blackhead) in turkeys
(Hegngi et al., 1999) levamisole against gastro intestinal
Helminthiasis in birds produces pathogenic
tract nematodes by (Ihsanullah, 1999) levamisole HCl
conditions ranging from dilations of gut and nodule
and oxfendazole against gastro-intestinal nematodes in
formation to severe enteritis. It adversely affects the
common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) (Ashraf, et al., 2002)
health of birds during heavy infestation.
Parrots are beauty of nature and contribute a lot
This study will help the game bird owners about
in eco-system and are commonest fancy game birds
helminthiasis, its treatment and control, to minimize the
through out the world. Parasitic infestation although are
not acute in nature but are cause of continuous and
sustained economic losses in birds. The gastro-intestinal
MATERIALS AND METHODS
tract of parrots harbors a wide variety of helminths, of
which nematodes and cestodes are the most deleterious
A total of one hundred and thirty (130) faecal samples
parasites and are responsible for clinical and sub clinical
were collected in clean sterile prelabelled polythene bags.
parasitism. Cestodes or tapeworm infections are not
All the samples were examined using direct smear
uncommon in Psittacus species, such as Timneh and
Congo greys. Nematode infections are sometimes found
in birds housed outdoors and are invariably roundworms
Procedure: A small amount of fresh faecal material was
(Ascardia galli) and Capillaria spp infections (Darrel,
placed on a clean glass slide, one or two drop of water
1996). These helminths also damage the host by
was mixed thoroughly, forming a homogenous mixture.
consuming nutrients and vitamins, decreasing feed
A cover slip was placed on the smear and examined
utilization by the host causing intestinal obstruction,
under low power of microscope. As a result 67.7 percent
producing toxins in the host, exposing to various types of
faecal samples were found positive for various helminth
Treatment trials: Out of 88 infected birds, 72 were
reported in various breeds of parrots by different
randomly divided into 3 groups A, B and C, each
scientists like Ascaridia platyceri (Weekes, 1981) in
comprising of 24 birds, While 24 uninfected birds were
masked lovebird; Hymenolepis macrorchida (Spasskii,
kept in group D. Group A (24 birds) consisted of love
1988); Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and
birds peach face breed and these birds were treated with
Spiroptera (Tsai et al., 1992) in psittacine and passerine
albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) @ 0.1ml/kg body weight.
birds, Dispharynx nasuta (Bolette, 1998) and in princess
Group B (24 birds) consisted of budgerigar ring necked
parrot, Pterothominx moraveci (Barus et al., 2005)
breed which were treated with levamisole (Nilverm
A broad range of anthelmentics have been used
drench, ICI) @ 5ml/litre of water. Group C (24 birds)
against helminth parasites such as albendazole and
consisted of Alexandrine parrots, Blossom headed
fenbendazole for their effectiveness in the treatment and
parakeet and Blue fronted amazon breeds which were
Khan et al. J. Anim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
kept as untreated infected control. Group D (24 birds)
comprised of Cockatiel, Blue ring necked parakeet,
Eclectus parrot and African grey parrot breeds which
Comparative Antihelmintic Efficacy: Albendazole
served as uninfected and untreated control.
treatment reduced the faecal egg count of group A from
The fecal samples were pre treatment and called
1800 (40.78 %), at day “0” to 1066 (68.56%), 566 and 66
as day 0 sample. After collection of fecal samples the
on day 3, 7 and 10 of medication, with percentage
birds in group A and B were given treatment. The dose
efficacy of 40.78 %, 68.56% and 96.33 %, respectively.
rate for individual bird was calculated on body weight as
Levamisole treated Parrots of group B were found to
per manufacturer recommendations. Drugs were
have the reduction of EPG from 1100 on day “0” to 966,
administered orally to each bird using crop needle. All
566 and 166 on day 3, 7, and 10 of medication with
the fecal samples were examined through McMaster egg
percent efficacy of 12.18%, 48.55%, and 84.90%,
counting technique (Soulsby, 1982). Further fecal
samples of birds in all the groups were collected on day
The average faecal egg count of untreated group
3, 7 and 10 post medications. Two gram of faeces placed
C birds were found to have 1900 on day “0” (pre-
in a small screw capped plastic bottle containing glass
medication) to 1966, 2066 and 2270 on day 3, 7, and 10
beads. 60ml of saturated sodium chloride solution was
added in the bottle. The contents were shaken gently to
respectively.Albendazole was found to be highly
break up the faeces. The mixture was then poured
effective (96.33%) as compared to levamisole (84.90%)
through a 100-mesh sieve in to a small beaker and the
which was less effective against gastro-intestinal
mixture was allowed to stand or 15-20 minutes. The
supernatant was withdrawn using Pasteur pipette to fill
one chamber of the McMaster egg counting slide. After
Table – 1: Number and Percentage of Helminths
focusing a corner, the eggs were counted by moving the
species present in Parrots at Lahore Zoo
chamber up and down. The counting was repeated for the
second chamber. The total number of eggs counted two
Helminth spp. No. of positive Relative
chambers was multiplied by 50 to get the number of eggs
birds (infected) Prevalence (%)
Where N = No. of eggs counted into two chambers. Drug Efficacy: Controlled test was conducted for
efficacy of drugs (Moskey and Harwood, 1941) on the
basis of reduction in EPG (egg per gram) pre and post
Percent efficacy = a - b ∕ a × 100. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Eighty eight out of 130 samples were found
positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakisgallinae and Ascardia galli showing over all prevalence
of 67.7 % while relative prevalence was recorded as
In fe c tio n
73.86 and 26.14 percent respectively. (Table-1, Fig-1) Coprological examination of birds on day 0, 3, 7 and 10: The average numbers of nematode eggs in birds Fig-1: Overall infection rate of Helminthiasis at
treated with albendazole (group A) were 1800 on day
“0”, pre-medication. The number reduced to 1066, 566
and 66 post medication on day3, 7 and 10 respectively.
During this study, two different species of
The average faecal egg count in birds of group B
nematodes were identified after examination of 130
treated with levamisole Hcl was 1100 pre-medication.
bird’s feacal samples. The data collected revealed 88
This number reduced to 966, 566 and 166 post-
birds positive for helminth infection, with overall
medication on day 3, 7 and 10 respectively.
prevalence of 67.70 % and relative prevalence was
Khan et al. J. Anim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
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LES ADOLESCENTS ET LES ASSUÉTUDES Préfet des Etudes, A.R. Fragnée-LiègeMaître de Conférences-Université de Liègel’évidence. Par contre, entre la négation pure et simple du problème à coup de répression, d’exclusion et de refusd’inscription et un laxisme aveugle tendant à ne gommerL’importance croissante que connaissent le commerce que la partie la plus visible de l’ic