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Prevalence and chemotherapy of helminthiasis in parrots atKhan et al.
The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 20(3), 2010, Page: 189- J1.9A2nim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
PREVALENCE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF HELMINTHIASIS IN PARROTS AT
LAHORE ZOO, PAKISTAN
M. A. Khan, M. S. Khan, M. Shafee* and J. A. Khan Department of Medicine, UVAS, Lahore, *CASVAB, University of Balochistan, Quetta.
Corresponding author email; firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT
A total of 130 faecal samples were collected from various breeds of parrots. Eighty eight samples were found positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia galli. Faecal samples were examined for counting of egg/gram of faeces using McMaster egg counting technique having overall prevalence of 67.70 % with individual relative percentage as 73.86 and 26.14 respectively.The birds were divided into four groups; group A, B, C and D. Group A was treated with albendazole, group B with Levamisole, Group C was kept as untreated infected control and group D was untreated and uninfected control. Albendazole was found to be highly effective (96.33%) as compared to levamisole (84.90%) against gastro-intestinal nematodes in parrots.
Key words: Helminthiasis, Enteritis, Chemotherapy, Albendazole, Levamisole
prevention of histomonosis (blackhead) in turkeys (Hegngi et al., 1999) levamisole against gastro intestinal Helminthiasis in birds produces pathogenic tract nematodes by (Ihsanullah, 1999) levamisole HCl conditions ranging from dilations of gut and nodule and oxfendazole against gastro-intestinal nematodes in formation to severe enteritis. It adversely affects the common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) (Ashraf, et al., 2002) health of birds during heavy infestation.
Parrots are beauty of nature and contribute a lot This study will help the game bird owners about in eco-system and are commonest fancy game birds helminthiasis, its treatment and control, to minimize the through out the world. Parasitic infestation although are not acute in nature but are cause of continuous and sustained economic losses in birds. The gastro-intestinal MATERIALS AND METHODS
tract of parrots harbors a wide variety of helminths, of which nematodes and cestodes are the most deleterious A total of one hundred and thirty (130) faecal samples parasites and are responsible for clinical and sub clinical were collected in clean sterile prelabelled polythene bags.
parasitism. Cestodes or tapeworm infections are not All the samples were examined using direct smear uncommon in Psittacus species, such as Timneh and Congo greys. Nematode infections are sometimes found in birds housed outdoors and are invariably roundworms Procedure: A small amount of fresh faecal material was
(Ascardia galli) and Capillaria spp infections (Darrel, placed on a clean glass slide, one or two drop of water 1996). These helminths also damage the host by was mixed thoroughly, forming a homogenous mixture.
consuming nutrients and vitamins, decreasing feed A cover slip was placed on the smear and examined utilization by the host causing intestinal obstruction, under low power of microscope. As a result 67.7 percent producing toxins in the host, exposing to various types of faecal samples were found positive for various helminth Treatment trials: Out of 88 infected birds, 72 were
reported in various breeds of parrots by different randomly divided into 3 groups A, B and C, each scientists like Ascaridia platyceri (Weekes, 1981) in comprising of 24 birds, While 24 uninfected birds were masked lovebird; Hymenolepis macrorchida (Spasskii, kept in group D. Group A (24 birds) consisted of love 1988); Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and birds peach face breed and these birds were treated with Spiroptera (Tsai et al., 1992) in psittacine and passerine albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) @ 0.1ml/kg body weight.
birds, Dispharynx nasuta (Bolette, 1998) and in princess Group B (24 birds) consisted of budgerigar ring necked parrot, Pterothominx moraveci (Barus et al., 2005) breed which were treated with levamisole (Nilverm A broad range of anthelmentics have been used drench, ICI) @ 5ml/litre of water. Group C (24 birds) against helminth parasites such as albendazole and consisted of Alexandrine parrots, Blossom headed fenbendazole for their effectiveness in the treatment and parakeet and Blue fronted amazon breeds which were Khan et al.
J. Anim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
kept as untreated infected control. Group D (24 birds) CHEMOTHERAPY
comprised of Cockatiel, Blue ring necked parakeet, Eclectus parrot and African grey parrot breeds which Comparative Antihelmintic Efficacy: Albendazole
served as uninfected and untreated control.
treatment reduced the faecal egg count of group A from The fecal samples were pre treatment and called 1800 (40.78 %), at day “0” to 1066 (68.56%), 566 and 66 as day 0 sample. After collection of fecal samples the on day 3, 7 and 10 of medication, with percentage birds in group A and B were given treatment. The dose efficacy of 40.78 %, 68.56% and 96.33 %, respectively.
rate for individual bird was calculated on body weight as Levamisole treated Parrots of group B were found to per manufacturer recommendations. Drugs were have the reduction of EPG from 1100 on day “0” to 966, administered orally to each bird using crop needle. All 566 and 166 on day 3, 7, and 10 of medication with the fecal samples were examined through McMaster egg percent efficacy of 12.18%, 48.55%, and 84.90%, counting technique (Soulsby, 1982). Further fecal
samples of birds in all the groups were collected on day The average faecal egg count of untreated group 3, 7 and 10 post medications. Two gram of faeces placed C birds were found to have 1900 on day “0” (pre- in a small screw capped plastic bottle containing glass medication) to 1966, 2066 and 2270 on day 3, 7, and 10 beads. 60ml of saturated sodium chloride solution was added in the bottle. The contents were shaken gently to respectively.Albendazole was found to be highly break up the faeces. The mixture was then poured effective (96.33%) as compared to levamisole (84.90%) through a 100-mesh sieve in to a small beaker and the which was less effective against gastro-intestinal mixture was allowed to stand or 15-20 minutes. The supernatant was withdrawn using Pasteur pipette to fill one chamber of the McMaster egg counting slide. After Table – 1: Number and Percentage of Helminths
focusing a corner, the eggs were counted by moving the species present in Parrots at Lahore Zoo
chamber up and down. The counting was repeated for the second chamber. The total number of eggs counted two Helminth spp.
No. of positive
chambers was multiplied by 50 to get the number of eggs birds (infected)
Where N = No. of eggs counted into two chambers.
Drug Efficacy: Controlled test was conducted for
efficacy of drugs (Moskey and Harwood, 1941) on the basis of reduction in EPG (egg per gram) pre and post Percent efficacy = a - b ∕ a × 100.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Eighty eight out of 130 samples were found positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia galli showing over all prevalence of 67.7 % while relative prevalence was recorded as In fe c tio n
73.86 and 26.14 percent respectively. (Table-1, Fig-1)
Coprological examination of birds on day 0, 3, 7 and
10: The average numbers of nematode eggs in birds
Fig-1: Overall infection rate of Helminthiasis at
treated with albendazole (group A) were 1800 on day Lahore Zoo
“0”, pre-medication. The number reduced to 1066, 566 and 66 post medication on day3, 7 and 10 respectively.
During this study, two different species of The average faecal egg count in birds of group B nematodes were identified after examination of 130 treated with levamisole Hcl was 1100 pre-medication.
bird’s feacal samples. The data collected revealed 88 This number reduced to 966, 566 and 166 post- birds positive for helminth infection, with overall medication on day 3, 7 and 10 respectively.
prevalence of 67.70 % and relative prevalence was Khan et al.
J. Anim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
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