Australian people can buy antibiotics in Australia online here: http://buyantibioticsaustralia.com/ No prescription required and cheap price!

Prevalence and chemotherapy of helminthiasis in parrots at

Khan et al.
The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 20(3), 2010, Page: 189- J1.9A2nim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
ISSN: 1018-7081
PREVALENCE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF HELMINTHIASIS IN PARROTS AT
LAHORE ZOO, PAKISTAN
M. A. Khan, M. S. Khan, M. Shafee* and J. A. Khan Department of Medicine, UVAS, Lahore, *CASVAB, University of Balochistan, Quetta.
Corresponding author email; shafeegl@yahoo.com ABSTRACT
A total of 130 faecal samples were collected from various breeds of parrots. Eighty eight samples were found positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia galli. Faecal samples were examined for counting of egg/gram of faeces using McMaster egg counting technique having overall prevalence of 67.70 % with individual relative percentage as 73.86 and 26.14 respectively.The birds were divided into four groups; group A, B, C and D. Group A was treated with albendazole, group B with Levamisole, Group C was kept as untreated infected control and group D was untreated and uninfected control. Albendazole was found to be highly effective (96.33%) as compared to levamisole (84.90%) against gastro-intestinal nematodes in parrots.
Key words: Helminthiasis, Enteritis, Chemotherapy, Albendazole, Levamisole
INTRODUCTION
prevention of histomonosis (blackhead) in turkeys (Hegngi et al., 1999) levamisole against gastro intestinal Helminthiasis in birds produces pathogenic tract nematodes by (Ihsanullah, 1999) levamisole HCl conditions ranging from dilations of gut and nodule and oxfendazole against gastro-intestinal nematodes in formation to severe enteritis. It adversely affects the common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) (Ashraf, et al., 2002) health of birds during heavy infestation.
Parrots are beauty of nature and contribute a lot This study will help the game bird owners about in eco-system and are commonest fancy game birds helminthiasis, its treatment and control, to minimize the through out the world. Parasitic infestation although are not acute in nature but are cause of continuous and sustained economic losses in birds. The gastro-intestinal MATERIALS AND METHODS
tract of parrots harbors a wide variety of helminths, of which nematodes and cestodes are the most deleterious A total of one hundred and thirty (130) faecal samples parasites and are responsible for clinical and sub clinical were collected in clean sterile prelabelled polythene bags.
parasitism. Cestodes or tapeworm infections are not All the samples were examined using direct smear uncommon in Psittacus species, such as Timneh and Congo greys. Nematode infections are sometimes found in birds housed outdoors and are invariably roundworms Procedure: A small amount of fresh faecal material was
(Ascardia galli) and Capillaria spp infections (Darrel, placed on a clean glass slide, one or two drop of water 1996). These helminths also damage the host by was mixed thoroughly, forming a homogenous mixture.
consuming nutrients and vitamins, decreasing feed A cover slip was placed on the smear and examined utilization by the host causing intestinal obstruction, under low power of microscope. As a result 67.7 percent producing toxins in the host, exposing to various types of faecal samples were found positive for various helminth Treatment trials: Out of 88 infected birds, 72 were
reported in various breeds of parrots by different randomly divided into 3 groups A, B and C, each scientists like Ascaridia platyceri (Weekes, 1981) in comprising of 24 birds, While 24 uninfected birds were masked lovebird; Hymenolepis macrorchida (Spasskii, kept in group D. Group A (24 birds) consisted of love 1988); Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and birds peach face breed and these birds were treated with Spiroptera (Tsai et al., 1992) in psittacine and passerine albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) @ 0.1ml/kg body weight.
birds, Dispharynx nasuta (Bolette, 1998) and in princess Group B (24 birds) consisted of budgerigar ring necked parrot, Pterothominx moraveci (Barus et al., 2005) breed which were treated with levamisole (Nilverm A broad range of anthelmentics have been used drench, ICI) @ 5ml/litre of water. Group C (24 birds) against helminth parasites such as albendazole and consisted of Alexandrine parrots, Blossom headed fenbendazole for their effectiveness in the treatment and parakeet and Blue fronted amazon breeds which were Khan et al.
J. Anim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
kept as untreated infected control. Group D (24 birds) CHEMOTHERAPY
comprised of Cockatiel, Blue ring necked parakeet, Eclectus parrot and African grey parrot breeds which Comparative Antihelmintic Efficacy: Albendazole
served as uninfected and untreated control.
treatment reduced the faecal egg count of group A from The fecal samples were pre treatment and called 1800 (40.78 %), at day “0” to 1066 (68.56%), 566 and 66 as day 0 sample. After collection of fecal samples the on day 3, 7 and 10 of medication, with percentage birds in group A and B were given treatment. The dose efficacy of 40.78 %, 68.56% and 96.33 %, respectively.
rate for individual bird was calculated on body weight as Levamisole treated Parrots of group B were found to per manufacturer recommendations. Drugs were have the reduction of EPG from 1100 on day “0” to 966, administered orally to each bird using crop needle. All 566 and 166 on day 3, 7, and 10 of medication with the fecal samples were examined through McMaster egg percent efficacy of 12.18%, 48.55%, and 84.90%, counting technique (Soulsby, 1982). Further fecal
samples of birds in all the groups were collected on day The average faecal egg count of untreated group 3, 7 and 10 post medications. Two gram of faeces placed C birds were found to have 1900 on day “0” (pre- in a small screw capped plastic bottle containing glass medication) to 1966, 2066 and 2270 on day 3, 7, and 10 beads. 60ml of saturated sodium chloride solution was added in the bottle. The contents were shaken gently to respectively.Albendazole was found to be highly break up the faeces. The mixture was then poured effective (96.33%) as compared to levamisole (84.90%) through a 100-mesh sieve in to a small beaker and the which was less effective against gastro-intestinal mixture was allowed to stand or 15-20 minutes. The supernatant was withdrawn using Pasteur pipette to fill one chamber of the McMaster egg counting slide. After Table – 1: Number and Percentage of Helminths
focusing a corner, the eggs were counted by moving the species present in Parrots at Lahore Zoo
chamber up and down. The counting was repeated for the second chamber. The total number of eggs counted two Helminth spp.
No. of positive
Relative
chambers was multiplied by 50 to get the number of eggs birds (infected)
Prevalence (%)
Where N = No. of eggs counted into two chambers.
Drug Efficacy: Controlled test was conducted for
efficacy of drugs (Moskey and Harwood, 1941) on the basis of reduction in EPG (egg per gram) pre and post Percent efficacy = a - b ∕ a × 100.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Eighty eight out of 130 samples were found positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia galli showing over all prevalence of 67.7 % while relative prevalence was recorded as In fe c tio n
73.86 and 26.14 percent respectively. (Table-1, Fig-1)
Coprological examination of birds on day 0, 3, 7 and
10: The average numbers of nematode eggs in birds
Fig-1: Overall infection rate of Helminthiasis at
treated with albendazole (group A) were 1800 on day Lahore Zoo
“0”, pre-medication. The number reduced to 1066, 566 and 66 post medication on day3, 7 and 10 respectively.
During this study, two different species of The average faecal egg count in birds of group B nematodes were identified after examination of 130 treated with levamisole Hcl was 1100 pre-medication.
bird’s feacal samples. The data collected revealed 88 This number reduced to 966, 566 and 166 post- birds positive for helminth infection, with overall medication on day 3, 7 and 10 respectively.
prevalence of 67.70 % and relative prevalence was Khan et al.
J. Anim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
recorded as 73.86 and 26.14 percent of Heterakis gallina REFERENCES
and Ascardia galli respectively.
The over all prevalence of gastrointestinal Ashraf, M. N. W. Faisal, I. G. Ahmed and K. Pervez helminths (67.70 Percent) in the present study is closely (2002). Chemotherapy of gastro-intestinal related with the results of Mukaratirwa et al. (2004), nematodes in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus).
Lierz et al. (2002), Fallacara et al. (2001), Wojcik et al. (1999) and Varghese (1987) who also reported 72.7 58.3, Barus, V. V. Kajerova and B. Koubkova (2005). A new 66, 68, and 35.6-67.3 percent prevalence of species of Pterothominx Freitas, (Nematoda: gastrointestinal helminths respectively, whereas Ashraf Capillariidae) parasitising psittacine birds et al. (2002), Ihsanullah (1999) and Gassal and (Psittaciformes). Parasitol ; 62(1): 59-64.
Sehmaschke (2006) reported much higher incidence rate Bolette, D. P (1998). Dispharynxiasis in a captive i.e, 80.77, 78.89, and 96.7 percent respectively. The princess parrot. Wildlife Diseases; 34 (2): 390- difference in managemental conditions may be the cause of present variation in the prevalence.
Clarkson, M. J. and M. K. Beg (1970). The anthelmintic The results are not in agreement with Ehlers activity of L- tetramisole against Ascardia galli (1985) who performed a survey to study the parasitic and capillaria obsignata in the fowl. Vet. Rec., helminths in domestic fowl in Thailand and collected data from alimentary tract and trachea of 133 birds obtained Colglozier, M. L (1975). Anthelmintics activity of from five provinces. The parasites recovered were: A. levamisole given in drinking water to turkeys.
galli 64.35 percent, H. gallinae 37.12 percent, Acuaria Proc. of helminth. Society Washington; 42: 60- spiralis 12.87 percent, and Capillaria anulata 5.84 percent. The variation in the intensity of infections may Darrel K. S (1996) Antimicrobials commonly used in be due to many factors like breed differences, seasonal avian medicine Antifungals, anthelmintics, and variations, and managemental practices, ecological conditions in the area and anthelmentic treatment.
Antimicrobials 4. Hill Country Aviaries, L.L.C: The efficacy of albendazole (0.1ml/kg) against nematode infection in group A indicated that the efficacy Ehlers, B. S (1985). Survey of parasitic helminths of was 40.78, 68.56 and 96.33 percent on day 3, 7 and 10 poultry in Thailand. Thai. J. Vet. Med., 15(4): post medication, respectively. These finding are in close agreement with results of Ashraf et al. (2002) who Fallacara, D. M, C. M. Monahan, T. Y. Morishita, and R.
observed 95.60 percent efficacy post medication. Where as Albendazole was highly effective against different antimicrobial susceptibility of selected bacterial helminths used in 29 brown pelicans by Grimes et al. pathogens and a survey of intestinal parasites in free-living waterfowl. Avian Dis ;45(1): 128- In the present study, the efficacy does not correlate with percent efficacy described by the Jiang and Gassal. S, and R. Schmaschke (2006). The helminth and Li (1985) as they observed 100 percent efficacy. This variation can be attributed to genetic based resistance.
colchicus) in view of the specific environmental Result of the present study corroborate with the conditions in pheasantries and in the wild. Berl findings of Ihsanullah (1999) who reported 84.38% Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr; 119(7-8): 295- reduction in faecal egg count on day 07 post medication and Colglozier (1975) who observed that levamisole was Grimes. J, B. Suto, J. H. Greve and H. F. Albers (1989).
highly effective against Ascardia and Heterakis and Effect of selected anthelmintics on three moderately effective against Capillaria in turkey. The present results are slightly in disagreement with Sharma (Pelecanus occidentalis). J. Wild Dis. ; 25(1): et al. (1989) and Clarkson and Beg (1970) who reported Hegngi F. N, J. Doerr, T. S. Cummings , R. D. Schwartz , dehydrogenase activity in the parasites showing the 100 G. Saunders, A. Zajac, C. T. Larsen, and F. W.
percent efficacy of levamisole. It also do not correlate with the results of Ashraf et al. ( 2002) who observed benzimidazole derivatives for the treatment and 97.93 percent efficacy of gastro-intestinal nematodes in prevention of histomonosis (blackhead) in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) at Lahore Zoo turkeys. Vet Parasitol; 81(1): 2 9-37.
Ihsanullah (1999). Prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in aquatic birds at Lahore Zoo and anthelmintics. M.Sc (Hons) thesis. Deptt CMS, Khan et al.
J. Anim. Pl. Sci. 20(3): 2010
College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore; p: 46- Soulsby, E. J. L. (1982). Helminths, Arthropodes and Protozoa of domestic animals, 7th edition.
Jiang, Y. P. and Z. D. Li (1985). Anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole against Ascardia galli. China. J.
Spasskii A. A. (1988). Classification of Hymenolepis macrorchida in the genus Idiogenoides (Cestoda, Lierz. M, T. Gobel and R. Schuster (2002). Occurrence of Davaineidae) Parazitologiia; 22(2): 180-181.
parasites in indigenous birds of prey and owls.
Tsai. S. S, K. Hirai and C. Itakura (1992).
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr; 115(1-2): Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and Moskey, H. E. and P. D. Harwood (1941). Methods of passerine birds in Japan. Japan J Vet Res; 40(4): evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics. Am. J.
Varghese. T. (1987). Endoparasites of birds of paradise in Mukaratirwa. S, Z. M. Cindzi and D. B. Maononga Papua New Guinea. Vet Parasitol. ; 26(1-2): douglassii in commercially reared ostriches in Weekes P. J. (1981). Ascaridia platyceri in a masked the highyeld region of Zimbabwe. J Helminthol; lovebird. New Zealand, Vet. J. 29 (12): 241-242 Wojcik. A .R, L. Wasielewski, B. Grygon-Franckiewicz Sharma. R. K, K. Singh and K. K. Saxena (1989). The and E. Zbikowska. (1999). Economic losses in effect of levamisole and albendazole on some pheasant breeding evoked with endoparasites.
gallinae. Vet. Parasitol. ; 30(3): 213-222.

Source: http://thejaps.org.pk/docs/Sep-2010/PREVALENCE.pdf

Info pédagogiques 49

LES ADOLESCENTS ET LES ASSUÉTUDES Préfet des Etudes, A.R. Fragnée-LiègeMaître de Conférences-Université de Liègel’évidence. Par contre, entre la négation pure et simple du problème à coup de répression, d’exclusion et de refusd’inscription et un laxisme aveugle tendant à ne gommerL’importance croissante que connaissent le commerce que la partie la plus visible de l’ic

Mcsmeds alpha-strength specific 1.12

For More Information: Call 1-866-893-MEDS (6337) ROCALTROL (G) 0.25MCG RYTHMOL (G) 150MG LOPID (G) 600MG SEASONALE (G) 0.15/0.03MG LOPRESSOR (G) 100MG SECTRAL (G) 200MG LOPRESSOR (G) 50MG SECTRAL (G) 400MG DEPAKOTE (G) 125MG DEPAKOTE (G) 250MG DEPAKOTE (G) 500MG DIFFERIN CREAM (G) 0.10% ACULAR LS SOL (G) 0.40% DIFFERIN GEL (G) 0.10% ACUL

Copyright © 2010-2014 Find Medical Article