Assessing efficacy of stuttering treatments$Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UKReceived 20 September 2000; received in revised form 27 February 2001; accepted 15 June 2001Efficacy has been defined as the extent to which a specific intervention, procedure,regimen, or service produces a beneficial result under ideally controlled conditions whena
Tneppc.orgInvasive Plants Of Tennessee
December 2009 (2nd Edition)
The purpose of this list is to identify introduced plant species that are invasive or may becomeinvasive and cause damage to native plant communities. Introduced species are plants not native toa region of the state and are referred to as exotics. The intent of this list is to: • rank exotics based on their invasive characteristics;• foster early detection of invasive exotics enabling resource managers to implement a rapid response action to prevent establishment and spread; • educate the general public and resource managers in an effort to eliminate the use of invasive exotics in landscaping, restoration, and enhancement projects.
This list has no regulatory authority but provides useful information to help guide agencies andprivate landowners in making responsible decisions about plant use and management decisions.
The Council acknowledges that most introduced species are harmless. However, it also realizesthat many species do naturalize and have the potential to spread and become ecological disasters.
Nomenclature and authorship are taken from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS):http://www.itis.gov/index.html Protocols and Criteria for Listing:
TN-EPPC drafted a protocol for list development to evaluate plant species recommended for listingbased on field observations by botanists, land managers, and others working with the state’s naturalresources. Each plant was put through standardized ranking criteria to determine its inclusion andrank.
Severe Threat - possess invasive characteristics; spread easily in native plant communities anddisplace native vegetationSignifiant Threat - posses invasive characteristics; not presently considered to spread as easily intonative plant communities as Severe ThreatLesser Threat - spread in or near disturbed areas; not presently considered a threat to native plantcommunitiesAlert: - possess invasive characteristics; known to be invasive in similar habitats as those found inTennessee Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Broussonetia papyrifera (L.)L’Her. ex Vent.
Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid.
Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.
Elaeagnus umbellata var. parviflora (Wall. ex Royle) Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.
Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc.
Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder.
Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carr.
Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murr.
Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz.
Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC.
Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino Bromus japonicus Thunb. ex Murr.
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.
Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Achyranthes japonica var. hachijoensis Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC.
Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl.
Lepidium campestre (L.) Ait. F.
Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours) G. Don Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Swartz Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.
Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten.
Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum (deBruyn) A.N.Steward Polygonum cuspidatum Seib. & Zucc.
Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle Ludwigia uruguayensis (Camb.) Hara Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek
Lesion Characteristics in Familial Age-related Macular Degeneration Combined Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) for the Treatment of Macular Edema of Varied Etiologies: A Pilot Study Treatment of Macular Edema in Vein Occlusion Correlation Between Spectral Domain - Optical Coherence Tomography and Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis C