Simulation if lithium ion batteries in pv*sol advanced 6.0

PV*SOL advanced 6.0
1 Lead acid and lithium ion batteries PV*SOL advanced 6.0
PV*SOL advanced 6.0 can design and simulate grid connected photovoltaic systems with battery storage. The model developed to simulate battery storage takes into account al the relevant chemical and electrical effects of lead acid Currently, more than half of the storage systems available on the market are equipped with lead acid batteries. If you want to simulate a solar PV system with lead storage batteries, you can simply enter the batteries and the inverters in PV*SOL advanced 6.0 and obtain reliable, validated simulation results. The second most common type of battery currently used in PV storage systems is the lithium ion battery. PV*SOL advanced 6.0 does not yet include this battery type in its simulation model, as the technology is stil relatively new and reliable measurement data is not available. However, you can in principle simulate battery storage systems with lithium ion batteries in PV*SOL advanced. To do this, you just need to take account of the fol owing points when entering data and interpreting the simulation results. 2 Data entry
2.1 Battery inverter
For the battery inverter data, you should refer to the manufacturer's data sheet and enter it in PV*SOL advanced. You don’t need to change any data for lithium ion batteries. However, if the manufacturer provides data on the loading strategy for the energy management system in the battery inverter, we recommend that you enter this in the dialog "Charging Strategies". For example, lithium ion batteries may often be discharged deeper than lead acid batteries. 2.2 Battery
The lithium ion battery data should be handled as fol ows for simulation: Characteristic
Must be specified as 2V, even though lithium Ion batteries usual y have a cel voltage of about 3.7V to 4V Bring the total voltage to the desired level through the number of cel s in series. For example, for a bank of lithium ion batteries with 48V, set the cel voltage at 2V and 24 cel s in series. Should be at a comparable level as in lead acid batteries of the same nominal capacity The selection on the "Type" page affects how the numbers of cycles are internal y converted: Type: "enclosed" -> Number of discharge cycles at 60% depth of discharge Type: "vented" -> Number of discharge cycles at 40% depth of discharge 3 Simulation results
The main differences between lithium ion and lead acid batteries can thus be considered in PV*SOL advanced. Please note, however, that the lack of reliable data means that the model for lithium ion batteries could not be validated. The fol owing should therefore be taken into account: - The energetic aspects of the simulation, i.e. the stored and discharged energy, correspond to a good - For the loading cycles and aging of the batteries, however, you should not use the simulation results. When entering the investment costs in the economic efficiency calculation you should, therefore, simply enter the lifespan as specified by the manufacturer. Copyright 2013 Dr. Valentin Software GmbH, Stand: 14. September 2013 Dr. Valentin EnergieSoftware GmbH, Stralauer Platz 34, 10243 Berlin, Deutschland


Jnm112177 1.6

Journal of Nuclear Medicine, published on April 10, 2013 as doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.112177 Reporting Guidance for Oncologic 18F-FDG PET/CT ImagingRyan D. Niederkohr1, Bennett S. Greenspan2, John O. Prior3, Heiko Schöder4, Marc A. Seltzer5,Katherine A. Zukotynski6,7, and Eric M. Rohren81Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Santa Clara, California; 2Department of Ra

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