Journal of Hospital Infection (2005) 59, 159–162High frequency of Candida parapsilosis on thehands of healthy hostsL.A. Bonassolia, M. Bertolia, T.I.E. Svidzinskib,*aUniversidade Estadual de Maringa´, Hospital Universita´rio Regional de Maringa´, Parana´, BrazilbUniversidade Estadual de Maringa´, Departamento de Ana´lises Clı´nicas, Laborato´rio de Micologia Clı´nica,Avenida Colomb
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Does mental illness exist?Does Mental Illness Exist?
By Dr. Edward Watke Jr.
I. Mental Illness -- Becomes a New Theory
A . Historical aspects
1 . Historically, illness was referred to as a bodily disorder.
2 . Altered bodily structure constituted illness. B. A new criterion for determining illness came on the scene.
When man began to label illness on the basis of observing behavior a new criterion was adopted without any scientific justification for designating illness. The concept of functional illness evolved when man began to label disease on the basis of bodily function rather than on the basis of organic structure.
C. Champion of the Movement -- Jean Martin Charcot
He lived from 1825-1893, is regarded as the champion of the concept of mental illness. Prior to Charcot, physical illness and poor behavior were considered the cause of man’s problems. Charcot shifted in his interest of studying neuro- pathology. Charcot came to view the hysterics as suffering from some kind of non- D. Study of Non-Physical Aspects of Psychic Phenomenon
Up until the time of Freud and Charcot, only the physiochemical explanation was accepted as belonging to the area of medicine. Medical science until then dealt only with physical organisms. Because of the intense desire of Freud and Charcot, they pushed for a scientific discipline that studied the non- These men, Freud and Charcot, began to make inroads into the medical profession. Illness had previously been described as a physiochemical disorder of the body which eventually manifested itself in the form of a disability. E. Psychology and Psychiatry rest upon the laurels of medical science.
1 . It is regarded as a legitimate science.
2 . If medical science, then chemical and physical disorders are: discovered, observed, and verified to be actual disorders. 3 . But, in psychology and psychiatry, symptoms are observed and remedies II. What About the Human Mind?
A . The human mind is more than matter.
1 . The atheistic, secularistic, evolutionist who is a counselor considers the Copyright 2000, Revival In the Home Ministries, Inc. 1.
2 . The mind is more than the brain cells that began to deteriorate at the moment of birth. In hell the rich man lifted up his eyes and remembered, even though his body was in the grave and was deteriorating, his mind was The mind, then, is more than the sum total of its material and component parts. The mind is immaterial and cannot be observed by the normal procedure of scientific investigation. The scientific community is limited in their investigation of the mind. Much of what is taught about the mind is fiction, based on godless ideologies.
3 . They are limited to natural material observation.
They can only record the chemical and electrical impulses. They can only decide what is normal or abnormal according to their ideas.
B. The mind is the innermost nature of an individual.
1 . Truth about the material aspects of the mind is found ONLY in the Bible.
2 . The mind as described in Scripture refers to the inner-most nature 3 . It is the whole attitude and habit of a man inwardly constituted as being capable of: That is, all the aspects below are controlled, influenced from the center of control -- the mind. The following makes up what the Bible means by the heart. 4 . The New Testament Greek word is nous, which implies the use of the mind
• Rom. 1:28 ___________________________________________________ • I Cor. 1:10 ___________________________________________________ • Phil. 1:7 _____________________________________________________ 5 . Man is what he is in his heart. What he thinks in his heart is what he is mentally. (Prov. 23:7; Isa 23:6; Matt 12:33-35; Rom. 12:2; 8:5-8; C. The origin of man’s problems
1 . Problems begin in our thinking center, not in our emotional center.
2 . Because of this, there is no such thing as emotional problems, as such. There are emotional responses seen in the life from sin -- in thoughts 3 . Emotions are like smoke detectors. Emotions are aroused because we do 4 . Man’s problems come from his heart. (Matt. 15:17-20; 12:33-35) Copyright 2000, Revival In the Home Ministries, Inc. 2.
5 . If man’s problems are emotional, there is nothing we can do about them, but if they are thinking problems, they can be dealt with by thinking properly. Then it is a matter of applying truth -- God’s truth -- His Word.
6 . Actions or behavior basically flows out of our thinking. Thoughts are the seed bed of our actions in most cases.
III. What About Bizarre Behavior?
A. The source can be legal and illegal drugs.
1 . Psychotropic drugs such as Thorazine, Loxitane and Elavil may produce pseudo-parkinson’s disease and involuntary eye moment, etc. They effect 2 . Non-perscribed drugs such as LSD may cause erratic behavior.
3 . It is a known fact that truck drivers use Benzedrine, better known as “bennies” to keep themselves awake. (The side effect of these drugs has 4 . Alcoholics have suffered from delirium tremors and hallucinations.
B. Another source can be guilt.
1 . The violation of one’s conscience may produce guilt, and this guilt may take a . In extreme cases people have washed their hands daily, repeatedly, trying to alleviate their hearts from guilt over something they have b . Abnormal ritualistic behavior is often a result of guilt.
c . Some have bathed many times a day trying to wash the inner man of the d . At times it may be evidenced in a persecution complex, or many abnormal fears, or the feeling that someone is constantly watching them.
2 . The above listed responses are often mechanisms to escape reality, to escape accountability of sin. The guilt is alleviated when the offender confesses his wrong, and claims God’s cleansing. C. Still another source may be camouflaging.
1 . Camouflaging is revealed in Scripture. (I Sam. 21: 10-15) 2 . Some counselees will camouflage or fake it in order to escape reality and having to accept personal responsibility for sinful practice and failure.
D. Demon possession can bring about bizarre behavior.
1 . People who are under the control of a demon may display unusual behavior.
2 . Demonic activity may be characterized by: Copyright 2000, Revival In the Home Ministries, Inc. 3.
Under attack, the person may project a personality entirely different from
Principles we need to consider:
1 . Bizarre behavior does not mean the person is mentally or emotionally 2 . We must treat non-organic problems as sin problems! a . Consider that problems are not the result of mental illness, b . nor are people’s problems the result of “emotional” illness, c . nor are these problems psychological problems -- but basically are sin 3 . When sin is dealt with, confession, repentance, and restoration has taken place, 4 . There are physical problems, (illnesses, etc.) that can affect behavior; these can be proven in the laboratory and specifically dealt with. But we need to look for proof, that is, be sure it is truly a physical problem and that the counselee __________________________________________________________________ Note Comparisons of Following Models as We Know Them Today:
Mental illness model
Sinful thoughts, actions -----> (persons (s) Treatment: confession of sin, Biblical change! Copyright 2000, Revival In the Home Ministries, Inc. 4.
PROTOCOLO SOBRE LOS PRIVILEGIOS E INMUNIDADES DE LA AUTORIDAD INTERNACIONAL DE LOS FONDOS MARINOS Los Estados partes en el presente Protocolo, Considerando que en la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar se establece la Autoridad Internacional de los Fondos Marinos, Recordando que en el artículo 176 de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del