Effect of Honey, Dextromethorphan, and No Treatment on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality for Coughing Children and Their Parents Ian M. Paul, MD, MSc; Jessica Beiler, MPH; Amyee McMonagle, RN;Michele L. Shaffer, PhD; Laura Duda, MD; Cheston M. Berlin Jr, MD Objectives: To compare the effects of a single noctur- Main Outcome Measures: Cough frequency, cough nal dose of buckwheat honey or
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Microsoft word - 6Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2: 154-158 (2011) ISSN 2249-3379 In vitro anthelmintic activity of roots of capparis zeylanica linn. Ravindra D. Bendgude*1, Manish S. Kondawar2, Sandeep B. Patil2, Rupali V.Hirave3 1. SVERI’S College of Pharmacy, Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India. 2. Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. 3. Sahydri College of Pharmacy Methawade,Sangola,Maharashtra, India. *Corresponding author: email@example.com Helminth infections are among the most common infections in man; in developing countries they pose a large threat to public. These infections can affect most population in endemic areas with major economic and social consequences. The Capparis zeylanica Linn is commonly known as ‘Indian caper’. The all parts of plant being used from the period of Susruta as acrid, anthelmintic, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory effect. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of different extracts of roots Capparis zeylanica Linn. [Cappardiaceae] The different successive extracts namely petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous using Pheretima posthuma as test worms. The different concentrations (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5%) of various extracts were tested in the bioassay which involved determination of the time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. Albendazole was included as standard reference and normal saline as control. The results of present study indicated that the crude ethanolic extract and aqueous extracts significantly demonstrated paralysis and also caused death of worms in dose dependent manner, as compared to standard reference albendazole. While petroleum ether extract shows weak anthelmintic effect further studies are in process to isolate the active principles responsible for the Key words: Capparis zeylanica Linn, anthelmintic activity, Phertima posthuma, The Capparis zeylanica Linn is commonly known as ‘Indian caper’. The roots of plants were widely used in small pox, gout, sedative purpose . Capparis species has been reported to have counter-irritant, febrifuge, diuretic, piles  antimicrobial, anthelmintic , anti-inflammatory .and antidote to snakebite [5-7] The modern Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2: 154-158 (2011) ISSN 2249-3379 phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of fatty acids  , flavonoid  and alkaloids in its leaves . An attempt was made to evaluate the anthemintic activity of different extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn roots. The roots of Capparis zeylanica Linn were collected in month of July 2009 from rural area of Solapur district .The plant was authenticated by approved botanist. The powdered root (500gm) was extracted successively with petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous using a The root of Capparis zeylanica Linn were collected from the local areas of Solapur district, Maharashtra, India and authenticated by approved botanist and specimen voucher was deposited in the same institute. 500g of shade dried coarsely powdered root of Capparis zeylanica Linn was extracted exhaustively for 72 hours in a soxhelet apparatus with petroleum ether, ethanol and water extract was carried out by maceration process. The anthelmintic assay was carried out as per the method of described [11, 12] with minor modification. The assay was performed on adult Indian earthworm Phertima posthuma due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasite of human beings. 0.1%, 0.2%and 0.5% dilutions of petroleum ether extract, ethanol prepared in propylene glycol, and aqueous extract were prepared in normal saline. Albendazole with normal saline to obtain 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% solution used as standard. Normal saline and propylene glycol served as control. All dilutions of test, standard, and control were prepared into different Petri dishes. Six earthworm of nearly equal size were placed in each of there Petri dishes at room temperature. The time taken for complete paralysis and death was recorded. External stimuli were applied to ascertain the paralysis time. The time taken by worm to become motionless was considered as paralysis time and lethal time was ascertained by death of The results of anthelmintic activity are shown in Table no.1. In the present study it was observed that all the extracts have shown positive response to certain degree of Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2: 154-158 (2011) ISSN 2249-3379 anthelmintic activity. Where as ethanol extract of plant shown significant activity as Table No. 1: Anthelmintic Activity of different extracts of Capparis zeylanica *P<0.05 when compared to control. Values are expressed as mean +_SEM Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2: 154-158 (2011) ISSN 2249-3379 In conclusion, Traditional uses of plant Capparis zeylanica Linn as powerful anthelmintic activity has been confirmed and ethanol extract displayed profound anthelmintic activity in study. Further, it would be interesting to isolate the possible phytoconstituents which may be responsible for the anthelmintic activity and to 1. Bakshi D N, Sensarma P and Pal DC, A lexicon of medicinal plants of India, Vol 1, Calcutta: Naya Prakashan; 1999, 360-365. 2. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD, Indian Medical plants, Vol I, Dehradun: International Book Publication Distribution; 1987, 195-201. 3. Mali R.G., Hundiwale J. C., Sonawane R.S., Patil R.N., Hatapakki B.C. ,Evaluation of Capparis deciduas Linn for anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities, Indian Journal of Natural Product., 2004, 20(4),10-12. 4. Chaudhary S.R., Chavan M.J. and Gaud R.S., Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Cappris Zeylanica Linn root extracts, Indian Journal of Natural 5. Chopra R.N., Chopra I.C., Handa K.L. and Kapur L.D., Indigenous Drugs of India, 6. Bawaskar H.S. and Bawaskar P.H. , Call for global snakebite control and procurement funding, Lancet, 2001,357,1132-37. 7. Bawaskar HS, Snake Venoms and Antivenoms; Critical Supply Issues, JAPI, 2004, 8. Ekramul Haque, M Mohmud,Haque, Mulhlesur, Raheman and satyajit D.S., E- Octodec-7-en-5 ynoic acid from the root of capparis Zeylanica, Fitoterapia, 9. Sabhi M, Ramezanian M, Jaffari G, Haravi G ,Bahaeddini F, Aynehi Y, Survey of Indian plants for saponins Alkaloids, Flavonoids and Tannins, the plant of Capparidaceae, International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 1985, 23(4),165- Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2: 154-158 (2011) ISSN 2249-3379 10. Cordell G.A., Introduction to the Alkaloids Biogenetic Approach., New York : John Benzothiazolo(5,1-b)-1,3,5-triazoles on Pheretima postuma. Indian Drugs 1999; 12. Nayak B.S., Jena P. K., Sahu N. P., Nayak U. K. and Patro K B, Comparative study of anthelmintic activity between Aqueous and ethanolic extract of solanum surattense Linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
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