1. The reduction of the causal factors of interpersonal conflict (IPC) in the Libyan cement
Munira Elmagri – Built Environment, Salford One survey showed that managers spend more than 25% of their work time dealing with conflict. Therefore, conflict in organizations has received considerable attention in academia and industry. However, there is a lack of empirical studies on subject of the factors causing IPC and how it can be reduced in countries around the world and most of what has been written, are theoretical studies. Thus, it aims to answer some of research questions which are: What is the level of IPC in the LCI? Why does IPC exist in the LCI? How could the factors that causing IPC be reduced in the LCI? The research gap and the importance of the study are presented under title of background. Research methodology is illustrated by figures. Moreover, it includes research objectives; data collection; data analysis; research findings and contribution to knowledge. The main research findings are summarised as follows: • IPC in the Libyan cement industry is at a high level; • The factors that cause IPC in the LCI were found due to: individual differences, threats to status, incivility, limitations of resources, unfair treatment, role ambiguity, role incompatibility, organisational change, mismanagement, tribal bigotry and contradictions between the organization’s policy and the state’s laws; • The causal factors of IPC can be reduced by applying the regulations equitably among employees and by moving away from tribalism and nepotism in the distribution of wages, rewards and training courses (these recommendations from viewpoint of the study participants).
2. Waste Packaging Problems and its Optimization
Ahmed Babader - Engineering Design, LJMU The main aim of the research is to raise high intentions of making possible alternative solutions to contribute to reduce the main impact of waste packaging and improve its efficiency, to save the environment.The first stage of research contains two main sections. The first section will address the importance of considering environmental issues in the industrial field, as well as packaging in people’s lives. The packaging life cycle and the state of industries will also be discussed in this research. In addition, the research will illustrate the problems caused to the environment, in terms of materials and epidemiology of waste, which emerge during poor waste management. Besides this, the research will provide some evidence regarding current waste management systems used in a variety of countries around the world. In the second section, the research will discuss the inception of a reusable packaging system as a solution to poor waste management, and its sustainability for environment. Furthermore, the research will focus on the system’s cost efficiency and design procedures, and also on consumers’ orientation of the reusable packaging system. Finally, the need to improve the quality of packaging and promote the recovery of waste packaging problem is very essential. A reusable packaging system will provide many solutions for the problems
and it is the way to gain environmental sustainability in the development world. Also, a reusable packaging system has the ability to reduce the cost of waste management. The design procedures and consumer’s orientation play important roles in the system.
3. Individual differences in response to brief psychological interventions: Exploring the role of
personality in the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Jasmin Knopp – Health Sciences, Manchester Introduction: OCD is a highly debilitating condition, affecting around 1-3% of the general population. Evidence-based treatments include psychological talking therapies such as cognitive and behaviour therapy, increasingly complemented by minimal contact interventions to support patient self-management. Treatment response for such interventions varies widely between individuals and around 40-50% of patients fail to benefit. Rationale: Very little is known about the factors which may account for this variability. Assessing patient characteristics as potential moderators of treatment outcome can extend our existing understanding of when/for whom certain treatments work. Method: Using data from a large randomised controlled trial, assessing the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of two minimal contact interventions (computerised cognitive-behaviour therapy/self-help manual) for adult OCD patients, this PhD will use qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the role of personality factors in moderating treatment response. A particular focus will be placed on investigating the role of family factors such as attachment style, the emotional bond between a child and his/her primary caregiver, and perceived familial criticism, as moderators of the relationship between treatment type and -outcome. Implications: Data derived from this PhD may play an important role in optimally matching individuals with treatment approaches which are most likely to prove beneficial. Realising that one size does not fit all, this research extends existing knowledge to inform the personalisation of mental health services and adapt treatment to suit patient needs and preferences.
4. An investigation of ciprofloxacin absorption onto clays for optimal drug release
Ashley Ryan Hamilton – Health Sciences, LJMU Data suggest that 176 in every 100,000 hospital admissions in the UK are due to skin or soft-tissue infections. Microorganisms affect many stages of wound healing causing increased morbidity and mortality. Systemic antibiotics are indicated for infected wounds as drug-resistance can occur when currently available topical antimicrobials are deployed. Humans have been using clays since prehistoric times as therapeutic agents to heal wounds. Historical records show that the Ancient Greeks used clays as a wound antiseptic whilst Egyptian Pharaohs used earth as an anti-inflammatory. Clays have a negative surface charge allowing the adsorption of water, bacteria, toxins, and drugs. A number of research teams have successfully adsorbed antimicrobials, such as tetracycline and itraconazole, onto clays though few have investigated the subsequent release of the adsorbed drugs or applied this to clinical problems. This work sets out to define which parameters effect ciprofloxacin adsorption onto clays and how these also affect ciprofloxacin release from the products. An investigation of ciprofloxacin adsorption onto clays for optimal drug release The effects of pH, concentration and time on ciprofloxacin adsorption were investigated and the mechanism of adsorption was determined through infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction.
Release-testing methods employed UV-visible spectrophotometry to determine the amount of ciprofloxacin released from the products over time. Ciprofloxacin was successfully adsorbed, via cation exchange, into the interlayer spaces of three different clays and its subsequent release-rate was shown to be sustained. These clay-ciprofloxacin composites could be useful in the treatment of infected wounds through their ability to control ciprofloxacin release and also absorb excess fluid from wounds.
5. A Study to explore the impact of working for a social enterprise on employee health and
James Chandler – Health Sciences, Salford My research will attempt to measure the wellbeing of employees of social enterprises in the Greater Manchester area. Social enterprises are businesses that have a social mission. Social enterprises are a growing part of the UK economy numbering around 68,000, employing nearly one million people. The issue of employee wellbeing has received more attention from policy makers and academia in recent years as the focus has shifted from quantity to quality of employment. New research has challenged the previously accepted notion that any employment is better than none for an individual’s wellbeing. This research identified that low quality work can be worse for an individual’s wellbeing than no work at all. Given that over 180 million working days are lost to sickness absence in the UK annually at a huge cost to the economy in lost productivity and the taxpayer, and that common mental health problems are the main cause, employee wellbeing is a significant public health issue. As social enterprises represent a growing and under-researched part of the UK economy employing nearly one million people, it is important to consider the quality of employment they provide. There is no existing research on this topic; studies that have assessed quality of employment have not considered social enterprises. My research will address this gap in the literature by qualitatively assessing the quality of employment provided by social enterprises. My presentation aims to communicate the need for research into this area which has been largely ignored and has significant public health implications.
6. An exploration of living with Motor Neurone Disease, receiving health care, and the impact on
Denise Harris – Health Sciences, Salford The current U.K. evidence provides an understanding of what it is like to be given a diagnosis of MND (Locock et al 2009), and the physical, psychological, social impact of MND on peoples’ lives (Brown and Addington-Hall, 2008; Hughes et al, 2005). The values of care in MND have been explored from the user perspective and also the family carer and professionals’ perspectives (Brown, 2003). Experiences and expectations of services in general have been investigated with recommendations for an interdisciplinary team approach (Hughes et al, 2005). There is a lack of understanding of what it is like to be suddenly involved in a different social system (The NHS). Central to Hermeneutic phenomenology is to interpret how people go about understanding the world in which they live (Heidegger, 1962; Gadamer, 1975). Biographic-narrative interpretive method (BNIM) (Wengraf, 2001) draws on hermeneutic phenomenological traditions, in which the research participants’ constructed meanings are investigated through the generation of biographic-narratives (Finlay and Ballinger, 2006). The aim of the study is to ask people to tell their story of what it is like for them to live with motor neurone disease and
receive health care, and how this impacts on their being, and for me as a researcher to understand the meaning of their experiences. Brown, J. (2003) User, carer and professional experiences of care in motor neurone disease. Prmary Health Care Research and Development. 4: 207-217. Brown, J. and Addington-Hall, J. (2008) How people with motor neurone disease talk about l living with their illness: a narrative study. JAN original research 200-208. Finlay, L. and Ballinger, C. (2006) Qualitative Research for Allied Health Professionals: Challenging Choices. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Gadamer H.G. (1975) Truth and method. In Koch, T. (1995) Interpretive approaches in nursing research: the influence of Husserl and Heidegger. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 21, 827-836. Heidegger, M. (1962) Being and Time (Translated by Macquarrie J and Robinson, E). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Hughes, R.A. Sinha, A. Higginson, I. Down, K. and Leigh, P.N. (2005) living with motor neurone disease: lives, experiences of services and suggestions for change. Health and Social Care in the Community. 13(1), 64-74. Locock, L. Ziebland, S. and Dumelow, C. (2009) Biographical disruption, abruption and repair in the context of Motor Neurone Disease. Sociology of Health and Illness. Vol. 31 No. 7. pp 1043-1058. Motor Neurone Disease Association (2008) Unlocking the secrets of MND. Research Report. MNDA Northampton. Wengraf, T. (2001) Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage publications.
7. Dietary patterns of older adults: associations with vitamin B12 biomarkers.
Maha Al-Turki – Health Sciences, Sheffield Previous studies of dietary causes of vitamin B12 deficiency examined B12 status in relation to intake of single nutrients. There may be advantages of a dietary pattern approach. This study seeks to identify dietary patterns in a healthy elderly population and to explore associations between their dietary patterns and vitamin B12 biomarkers. A cross-sectional study of 591 adults aged between 65 and 85 years included fasting blood and urine sampling for measurement of plasma vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) and urinary methylmalonic acid (uMMA). Dietary assessment was by a 4-day estimated food diary and dietary patterns were identified from food group data using Principle component analysis. The second component (9.6% of variance), characterised by positive factor loadings on consumption of alcoholic drinks, meat and meat products was inversely related to plasma vitamin B12 (r= -0.160; p<0.001) and plasma holoTC (r= -0.168; p=0.001). Multiple regression analysis with adjustment for environmental variables, intake of energy, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin and total B12 intake explained 15% of the variance of plasma vitamin B12. Score on component 2 also independently predicted plasma holoTC after adjustments for environmental variables, energy, thiamin, niacin, biotin and total B12 intakes, explained 17.8% of the variance in holoTC. A dietary consumption pattern orientated towards meat and meat product and against fruit and vegetables is negatively associated with vitamin B12 status.
8. Outcomes of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions and Rehabilitation of people with
knee Injuries in Egypt: a prospective study
Adel Almangoush – Health Sciences, Sport & Rehabilitation, Salford This poster presents information about a research project which aims to identify the clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation exercises used in Egypt and compare them to the UK outcomes to identify their quality and validity. This prospective study with 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up will include only one group of 85 of patients who are diagnosed with ACL rupture and confirmed by clinical laxity tests and further verified by either arthroscopic and/or Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI). Outcomes measurements will be star excursion balance test (SEBT), the two hop tests (single-leg hop test and crossover hope test) of distance, single –leg -squat and range of motion (ROM), then participants will complete a self-administrated questionnaire (KOOS) and another questionnaire for an exercises achieved by the patients. Analysis The postoperative changes across all times will be evaluated by Friedman’s test and separate ANOVAs will be completed for the operative and non-operative limbs using data from all subjects. All descriptive data in this study will be presented as the arithmetic mean, SD and range. Statistical analysis will be performed using SPSS software (SPSS Science, version 19.o for Windows, USA). Findings It is hoped that by finishing this study, the clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation exercises used in Egypt are categorised and classified to identify their quality and validity in comparison with the UK outcomes.
9. Fluorescence-based analysis of the in-vitro anti-plasmodial activity of methanolic extracts of
Bridelia ferruginaea and Brysocapus coccinus.
Maryam S. Idris-Usman – Life Sciences, Salford Multidrug resistant malarial parasites are continuously emerging especially for the most lethal species, Plasmodium falciparum. Advances in high-throughput screening technologies and extensive funding have failed to deliver affordable anti-malarial options. The mainstay of drug-based malarial control continues to be largely reliant on the fortuitous discovery of natural compound remedies informed by traditional medical practices. The WHO has recently encouraged African countries to commence the development of Traditional African medicines (TAM) especially in relation to diseases like malaria that are endemic in these regions. One of the main bottlenecks with traditional medicine usage is the lack of standardized dosing, proper extraction and purification methods and hence the need for more research into the scientific validation of these practices. The present study aims to address this by developing a standardized workflow enabling the screening of some West African extracts for antimalarial activity. Preliminary data from optimised fluorometric in vitro assays evaluating the antimalarial activities of two West African herbal extracts Bridelia ferruginea
and byrsocapus coccineus will be presented. The study will also evaluate the efficacy of the extracts as potential candidates for synergy with artemisinin formulations.
10. COPD: Lung remodelling caused by smoking
Helen Smith – Life Sciences, Salford Rationale: COPD is a lung disease caused by cigarette smoking that causes breathing difficulties and ultimately death for the sufferer. It affects over 8 million people in the UK. Patient treatment comes at great cost to the NHS as current medications are ineffective. Key lung pathologies include tissue destruction (emphysema) and thickening (fibrosis). The reasons for these events are poorly understood it is thought fibrosis events are caused by defective repair mechanisms. Our research aims to further understand the tissue pathology in COPD to improve their treatment and prognosis. Objectives: To assess expression of a range of potential indicators of fibrosis and inflammation cell markers in lungs of a range of both current and ex smokers in healthy (non –COPD) and COPD lung tissue. Methods: Resected lung tissue (34 patients) and two cell lines were formalin fixed paraffin embedded cut to 5µm, and mounted on microscope slides. The patients gave informed written consent and were recruited at Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester. The study received ethical approval from South Manchester committee. The lung sections were stained via an immunohistochemical staining method. Computer-assisted image analysis was preformed. Results Positive marker staining shows that there is substantial airway remodelling and fibrosis in patients with COPD. Whilst there is little to no positive staining in the non-COPD lungs. Clinical Relevance: Identifying specific markers of lung fibrosis can give potential targets for new treatments and it can lead to better understanding of the pathology of COPD.
Afsaneh Tayyar – Art and Design, Salford The key characteristic of this investigation is how can the notion of melancholy be utilized in both the experience and conception of landscape photographic images? The aim of this research is to understand and define people’s perceptions of nature and whether it is possible to affect any viewers across the UK, by using landscape photography and melancholic techniques. Little research has been done on the examinations of the particulars of what the setting means, and this research aims to demonstrate how a melancholic setting or location is valuable for audiences or photographers. The distinction of this research is to investigate another aspect of melancholy, which relates to delight and pleasure. The emotion rarely similar to unhappiness, but is rather more advanced, concerning some level of enjoyment, although is not as much as embittered sweet enjoyment. In terms of melancholia capturing images by Digital-SLR camera in black and white or coloured photographs, which interpret Nature is the purpose of this research. In fact, behaviour, events or places
can be explored by melancholic pictures, and can be created by using different filters or with the intention. For an approach to this kind of photography Photoshop skills are required in order to embellish the images. This kind of photography deals in particular with masks, brushes and lots of adjustment layers, to have full color control. Optimisation of fluorescence-based in vitro drug susceptibility assays for malaria Out of the plethora of parasitic diseases that afflict mankind, malaria remains the most significant with 200-500 million cases reported annually and 1-3 million fatalities. Treatment and control measures have been hampered by the emergence of drug resistance to most common anti-malarial therapies. Despite significant post-genomic technological advances, drug development has struggled to keep pace with the speed of resistance acquisition. The development of fast, simple, and reliable drug susceptibility assays is an important pre-requisite to enable robust in vitro screening. More recently reported fluorescence-based options have afforded significant advantages over traditional hypoxanthine and enzyme-based assays (Grimberg, 2011). Data from a range of fluorescence based assays (eg. MTT, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy) optimised to report on the in-vitro viability/cytotoxicity of parasite strains exposed to anti-malarial drug combinations will be presented. Optimised methods will be applied to investigate new artemisinin-based synergistic combinations with compounds from the LOPAC library which are reported to show anti-plasmodial activity (Lucumi et al., 2010). Reports of early drug resistance to artemisinins make it imperative that novel candidates for combination therapy are urgently sought in a bid to impede the spread of resistance to this last affordable anti-malarial option.
12. The Communication Netwrk Architecture for the Smart Grid.
Zoya Pourmirza – Computer Science, Manchester The Smart Grid promises to provide better monitoring and control by incorporating the communication network over the power network. We investigate the monitoring and control of distribution sub-Grids, for example to a local area in a city. We propose a communication architecture to be deployed into a real local area of the sub-Grid to provide a test bed for supporting real-time data and predictive real-time system control. This is one of the main challenges of the Smart Grid. Our system design is aimed at investigating two key issues: firstly, energy constraints in wireless sensor networks and secondly, achieving an appropriate balance between central and distributed control of the sub-Grid. We propose an energy efficient distributed architecture, for control and communication and describe how it will be implemented in our experimental test bed. Additionally, TinyDB, which is a query processing system for sensor networks, has been extended to collect the real-time data from the environment, and make these data accessible by the local control unit. Finally, a visualization tool has been developed to integrate the map view of the test bed, display the real-time data, and send an alert to the network operator for finer-grained control over the system.
13. Technical Challenges with Ubiquitous Networks
Omar Khattab – Wireless Networks, Salford With the advancement of wireless communication and computer technologies, mobile communication has been providing more versatile, portable and affordable networks services than ever. Therefore, the
number of users of mobile communication networks has increased rapidly, as an example; it has been reported that number of pages viewed on the mobile Web browser Opera increased from 1.8 billion pages in January 2008 to 23 billion pages in January 2010 . In the ubiquitous networks, The Next Generation Wireless Systems (NGWS) allow the co-existence of different wireless technologies such as GSM, WiFi, WiMAX, UMTS and LTE. One of the challenging issues in NGWS is Vertical Handover (VHO) which allows the mobile users to continue their ongoing sessions during the mobility between these technologies. Therefore the telecommunication operators will be required to develop a strategy for interoperability of these different types of existing networks to get the best connection anywhere anytime. To fulfill these requirements, two mechanisms were proposed namely Media Independent Handover (MIH) and Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF). Each of them enables a seamless VHO between the different types of technologies. However within MIH “The actual algorithms to be implemented are left to the designers”  also there is inconsistency in its operation, hence it needs some improvements . To achieve this, we proposed a new approach that based on approaches proposed in the literature, our new proposed approach provides better performance, less complexity and more exhaustive for enhancing VHO.
14. Corporate Manslaughter: Triumph or Tragedy?
Chrissy Patman – Law, Salford The question of corporate manslaughter in England has been widely debated in political and legal arenas for centuries, with legal professionals, society, and politicians arguing for a change in the common law approach to gross negligence manslaughter and corporate criminal liability. The Corporate Manslaughter Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (hereafter "CMCH 2007") replaced the common law offence on the sixth April 2008. My paper addresses the issue that since the incorporation of the first company in 1600 to the introduction of CMCH there have been opportunities to legislate more effectively within this time line. Specifically, in my project, I will be looking at key points when change could have occurred, in order to show how legal norms, legal realism, and critical legal thinking effected that change. I argue that no matter which century is examined where a corporation has actively been involved with the death of an individual, legal norms, legal realism, and critical legal thinking have resulted in laws that are no more effective now than what they were in the 1600s. The opportunity for true and effective laws with bite was prevented from occurring for the same reasons. This project aims to shed new light on the issue of corporate manslaughter in England by acknowledging the opportunities of true reform have been missed. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Legal Realist, observed if law scholars wished to understand the law, it was crucial for them to examine its historical roots. We have not learnt!
15. Levels of Meaning in Islamic Sacred Space: Film Screening
Nevine Nasser – Built Environment, Princes School of Traditional Art (University of Wales) Something has been lost in the design of Islamic sacred spaces. It is as though the principles embodied in the masterpieces of pre-modern times have not been brought to bear on contemporary designs. These great buildings were harmoniously integrated into diverse localities spanning from Spain to China, whilst remaining true to the essence of the Islamic faith; displaying unity in multiplicity. This presentation unravels how traditional sacred spaces were designed to reflect the inner workings of nature and the cosmos through the use of patterns, proportions and symbolic forms, considered to be sensible aspects of the metaphysical reality of things. In Islamic cosmology, space was conceived of as a macrocosm reflecting the human microcosm, opening up the possibility of a movement towards higher realms and forming the intention of sacred space. The research draws together three seemingly disparate strands in the literature on Islamic sacred architecture; perennial, historical and phenomenological, with a view towards a more holistic discourse on levels of meaning. Visual research undertaken in Isfahan, Iran, aims to evoke the poetic flavour and spatial sensibility of pre-modern architectural masterpieces. This study invites a discussion on how incorporating levels of meaning in the design of contemporary sacred space can take it beyond its material level, giving rise to a specific arena of exchange that can inspire ontological shifts in consciousness. A language of universal principles used at the conceptual design stage may be an important step in creating contemporary sacred spaces that have deeper meaning and beauty, regardless of location.
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