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General Marking Guidance
• All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. • Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. • Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. • There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used • All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. • Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. • When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. • Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an • Mark schemes will indicate within the table where, and which strands of QWC, are ensure that text is legible and that spelling, punctuation and grammar are (ii) select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to (iii) organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary General Guidance on Marking – GCE Psychology
All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners should look for qualities to reward rather than faults to penalise. This does NOT mean giving credit for incorrect or inadequate answers, but it does mean allowing candidates to be rewarded for answers showing correct application of principles and knowledge. Examiners should therefore read carefully and consider every response: even unconventional answers may be worthy of credit. Candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. Make sure that the answer makes sense. Do not give credit for correct words/phrases which are put together in a meaningless manner. Answers must be in the correct context. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the Team Leader must be consulted.
Using the mark scheme

The mark scheme gives:
• an idea of the types of response expected
• how individual marks are to be awarded • the total mark for each question • examples of responses that should NOT receive credit (where applicable). / means that the responses are alternatives and either answer should receive full credit. ( ) means that a phrase/word is not essential for the award of the mark, but helps the examiner to get the sense of the expected answer. [ ] words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners. bold indicate that the meaning of the phrase or the actual word is essential
TE (Transferred Error) means that a wrong answer given in an earlier part of a question is used correctly in answer to a later part of the same question.
Quality of Written Communication

Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to:


construct and present coherent arguments demonstrate an effective use of grammar, punctuation and spelling. Full marks can only be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated “QWC” in the mark scheme BUT this does not preclude others.

Unit 2: Understanding the Individual

Section A

Eli was watching his favourite television programme and saw the hero rewarded for hitting the villain. He later copied this behaviour and hit his little brother.
C vicarious
reinforcement

D punishment
Maliha’s dog regularly gets his meal at six o’clock, and so has learned to salivate when the six o'clock news starts. The dog’s salivation when the news starts is an example of a conditioned response
Messages in the brain pass over the synaptic gap in the form of neurotransmitters

C hormones
D genes
When genes are the only cause of a characteristic it will definitely be both of a pair of identical (MZ) twins
only one of a pair of identical (MZ) twins both of a pair of non-identical (DZ) twins only one of a pair of non-identical (DZ) twins One strength of Freud’s study of Little Hans is it is a case study so it can be generalised to the target it is a case study so it provides rich, qualitative data
the data came from Hans’ father so it will not be biased the interpretation of dreams is an objective measurement Gillian has seen a new dress that she really wants but if she bought it now she would go overdrawn at the bank. She decides to wait until she has been paid before buying it. According to Freud’s theory, Gillian’s decision to wait is due to her
C superego
A longitudinal study is best described as testing a number of different people at one period of time one set of participants over an extended period of time
a number of different people in different cultures A weakness of longitudinal studies is that people may drop out of the study
A non-participant observation is specifically when the observer has told the participants they are part of a study has not told the participants they are part of a study is not a member of the group being studied
Number
10
Harry has carried out an experiment on participants from a local sixth form. He recruited his participants by placing posters around the building asking for people interested in taking part in the study to turn up at a specific time. His sampling method was B stratified
C volunteer

D opportunity
Number
11
Kate carried out a Mann Whitney U test on the results of her study. As Kate chose the Mann Whitney U test for her study, it means she was an experiment
had at least ordinal data
used an independent groups design
Section B
Question

General Instructions
Numbers
12-16

Marking points are indicative, not comprehensive and other points should
be credited. In each case consider ‘or words to that effect’. Each bullet
point is a marking point unless otherwise stated, and each point made by
the candidate must be clearly and effectively communicated.

Number
12(a)
Liam carried out an experiment to see which was the most clever species, cats or dogs. He used a number of cats and dogs and tested each animal on its own. While the animals were watching, Liam placed a food treat under one of three upside down cups and then moved the cups around into different positions. He then timed how many seconds it took the animal to find the food treat. He found that, on average, dogs found the food treat more quickly than cats. Identify the independent variable (IV) for the study. The IV is the type of animal used, cat or dog, they have to mention cats and dogs to get the mark. Reject one word answers. • Whether the animal/species tested was a cat or dog/eq;
Look for other reasonable marking points.
Number
12(b)
Identify the dependent variable (DV) for the study. Candidates have to mention the unit of time (seconds) to get the • How many seconds it took the animal to find the treat/eq;
Look for other reasonable marking points.
Number
12(c)(i)
Identify the experimental/participant design Liam used in his study. Reject methods or ‘different participants/animals. If more than one answer given accept the first one.
Look for other reasonable marking points.
Number
12(c)(ii)
Outline one weakness of the experimental/participant design you
If the weakness outlined is for a different experimental design to that mentioned in ci then 0 marks. The weakness can relate to the
O credit for weakness of a method e.g. lab experiment.
TE if ci is incorrect but cii correctly outlines a weakness of ci then max
1 marks. If ci is blank but cii correctly outlines a weakness of
• Because there are different participants in each group there could be something other than the IV affecting the results/eq; • E.g. the dogs may have a stronger sense of smell than cats so • There could be individual differences between groups/eq; • So the results could be due to participant variables not the • It can be more costly and time consuming than repeated • This is because we have to find twice as many participants for
Look for other reasonable marking points.
Number
12(d)
Liam carried out an experiment to see which was the most clever species, cats or dogs. He used a number of cats and dogs and tested each animal on its own. While the animals were watching, Liam placed a food treat under one of three upside down cups and then moved the cups around into different positions. He then timed how many seconds it took the animal to find the food treat. He found that, on average, dogs found the food treat more quickly than cats.
Describe at least two ethical issues Liam needed to consider before
marks for answers that evaluate animal studies in terms of their
If only 1 ethical issue max 2 marks.
No credit for human ethical guidelines if not related to the ownership of cats and dogs used in the study.
List of 3 or more ethical principles that relate to this experiment with
no elaboration Max 1 mark. If any elaboration in the answer list
mark no longer applies.
If no mention of Liam then max 3 marks.

• Liam should use the minimum number of animals possible to • He should consider Bateson’s cube to decide whether it is • Bateson’s cube says if we are certain of benefit, animal suffering is low and the research is of a high quality the study is ethical/eq; • As he is using treat they should be given in addition to the animals normal food not instead of it/eq; • If he has to look after the animals for a period of time he needs to ensure that they are looked after adequately/caged • He should not cause the animals any suffering so he needs to make sure the study is as stress free as possible for them/eq; • He must get the consent of the owners before doing the • He needs to consider what he will do if the animal shows signs Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
13
Mary is going on holiday abroad, but she is afraid of flying and she smokes cigarettes. Both of these are problems as the flight is long and smoking is not permitted. Mary’s friend has recommended that she find a therapy to help her with her fear of flying or to help her stop smoking.
Describe a therapy from the Learning Approach that may help Mary
with either her fear of flying or her smoking. You must refer to Mary
in your answer.
Answers should focus on either smoking of fear of flying, but if both included max marks can be gained as long as they are all for one
If the therapy is not from the learning approach 0 marks.
If more than one therapy is described mark all and credit the best. If no reference to Mary/flying/smoking or the therapy is not successfully applied max 2 marks.
Findings of all studies max 1 mark if used to explain the therapy.
Max 1
for an unelaborated list/diagram. If any elaboration in the
answer list mark no longer applies.
Read the full answer to check answer applies to one of the 2

scenarios

E.g. token economy.

• Token economy is based on the principle that behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to be repeated/eq; • The tokens act as a positive reinforcer as they allow people to exchange them for something that is desired/eq; • Mary will be told how many tokens she will receive for each day/waking hour she does not have a cigarette/eq • She will also be told the value of the tokens and how many are • Mary is being reinforced for not smoking so will carry on not • For each day Mary doesn’t smoke she will get x number of • When she has X number tokens she can swap them for a
E.g. Systematic desensitisation.
• Systematic desensitisation aims to teach the patient to associate relaxation with the feared object/eq; • This is done through creating a hierarchy of needs from the least feared to the most feared situation/eq; • Firstly Mary will be taught relaxation techniques/eq; • She will then be confronted with her least fearful situation e.g. seeing an aeroplane and have to relax/eq; • Once she has relaxed she can then move onto the next stage of the hierarchy where she has to relax again/eq; • She will gradually move up the hierarchy until she can relax at E.g. Aversion therapy.
• Aversion therapy aims to stop undesirable behaviour by associating it with an undesired response/eq; • It is based on pairing an aversive stimulus with the undesired • Mary could be given an (emetic) drug which will make her • At the same time she will have some cigarettes to smoke/eq; • As she will be sick just after smoking the cigarettes she will associate smoking with being sick so avoid cigarettes/eq; • A neutral stimulus/NS/cigarette is paired with an UCS/drug/eq; • Eventually the NS/cigarette becomes the CS/ leads to the E.g. Flooding.
• Flooding is based on learning a new reflexive response to a • It works on the understanding that fear can not be maintained for a long period of time so will eventually disappear/eq; • Mary will be placed in a safe environment and will be confronted • She may be placed in a simulated flight where she has to stay • Mary can’t be relaxed and afraid at the same time/eq; • She will have learnt to associate flying with being relaxed so will

Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
14
Operant conditioning explains how we learn new behaviour. Describe operant conditioning by filling in the blanks in the paragraph
below. Do not use the same word more than once.
If the same word is used correctly more than once for an answer it
can only get a mark the first time it is used. After that it doesn’t get a If there is more than 1 answer in the space mark the first answer If there is an answer on the line and above the line take the answer on
the line unless crossed out.
When we are given something that we want, such as praise for a good
piece of work, this is ___positive________________ reinforcement.
When we avoid a detention by doing our homework, this is an example
of ________negative____________________ reinforcement. Money
acts as ______ secondary/positive __________________
reinforcement because it allows us to buy things which satisfy a basic
need, such as food. Food is an example of _____
primary/positive
___________ reinforcement.

Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
15(a)
Freud said that our mind is made up of three parts, the conscious, the Outline these three terms using an example with each term. 2 marks per term.
Each outline must include an example otherwise max 1 mark.
An example gets a mark as long as it clearly illustrates the state. E.g. denial, repression, Oedipus complex not enough on their own.
E.g. conscious.
• This consists of what we know about/ is accessible/ are using at • Information in the conscious is what we aware of/eq; • E.g. When answering this exam question Freud’s theory is in • E.g. we can remember what we dreamed about/manifest
E.g. preconscious.
• This includes information that can be easy/difficult to recall but • Information that we can make ourselves aware of/eq; • E.g. You may not remember your mother’s birthday until a week before when you need to buy a present/eq; • E.g. Remembering things about your childhood because you
E.g. unconscious.
• This is information that we are not aware of and we can’t/is • E.g. Someone may have repressed being lost as a small child, • E.g. the latent content/symbols of the dream hide the true
Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
15(b)
Evaluate Freud’s theory of psychosexual development in terms of the methods he used to gather data as evidence for his theory. The evaluation must be in terms of the methods he used. No marks for other evaluation points. No marks for description. Max 2 marks for evaluation relating specifically to Little Hans, i.e. it
cannot be applied to his methods generally/eq; • Freud used case studies so he gathered a lot of in depth • Because he used case studies his findings may only be true of those people and not the rest of the population/eq; • He only studied one child, Little Hans, so he did not research all of the development as it was actually happening/eq; • His sample was mainly female, middle class patients so they are • His analysis of dreams is/may be subjective so other people may see the dreams as having a different meaning/eq; • His methods can be said to be unscientific due to a lack of • The information about Little Hans was second hand so it may be • It is hard to study the unconscious so it can be seen as
Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
16(a)
In the Biological Approach you will have learned about Money’s original (1975) study.
Outline the results and conclusions of Money’s original (1975) study.
No marks for results or conclusion of the follow up study or comments
about how the study did not work.
Max 2 marks if only the results or conclusion.
Credit points that could be either results or conclusion to the benefit of the candidate. • Money said that Brenda had a female gender identity and • The mother reported that Brenda liked to wear dresses, play with dolls and help around the house/eq; • Brenda did have some tomboyish traits, but this was said to be • Money concluded we are born gender neutral, /eq; • He concluded that gender identity can be acquired through how we are brought up/treated as a child/eq; • He concluded that our nature could be overcome by our • He concluded that gender was not biological/genetic but could
Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
16(b)
Evaluate Money’s original (1975) study in terms of validity and
if only reliability or validity is referred to. No marks for evaluation points not related to reliability or validity. No • The case of Daphne Went supports Money’s study as she was happy as a female even though she was biologically male/eq; • However several other studies have found that gender reassignments don’t work so reducing the reliability of Money’s study/eq; • The study was not controlled so it would be hard to replicate • It is reliable as Brian acted as a control to compare Brenda • It was a unique case study so it can’t be repeated reducing • The follow up of David Reimer found that he hadn’t been happy as a girl so questioning the validity of Money’s findings/eq • Population validity is low as Money only studied one child, so • Ecological validity is high as Brenda carried on with her normal life with her parents/at her own home whilst the study was being carried out/eq; Or reverse argument about interviews with Money. • Brenda did not know why she was being studied so she showed
natural behaviour/no demand characteristics • It gathered in depth, detailed information making it more
Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
17(a)
In the Learning Approach, you will have carried out an observation. State either the alternative hypothesis or the aim for your
observation.
One mark for a weak answer, two marks for an elaborated answer.
If the hypothesis/aim does not relate to an observation from the Learning Approach 0 marks.
If it is the null hypothesis then 0 marks. If a candidate has done both
an aim and a hypothesis mark both and credit the best. If it is not clear if it is an observation read all of question 17 A, B & C before giving any marks. If you think an observation is unethical e.g. underage drinking/ smoking, or doing them in school time mark as normal then send to review with marks awarded in the message.

0 marks

Either no answer or a muddled answer where the examiner cannot tell what was being studied. No focus on the observation, is not an observation or no answer at all.

1 mark
The examiner is given a brief idea of what was being studied or one of
the IV or the DV may be operationalised (if hypothesis) OR The
examiner is given a brief idea about what the aim of the study was. (if
aim)
The examiner knows exactly what was being studied and both the IV
and the DV will be operationalised. (if hypothesis) OR The examiner
knows exactly what the candidates aimed to study/find in their observation e.g. know the 2 groups studied and what was being measured.

Look for other reasonable marking points.
Number
17(b)
Outline the conclusions you reached from your observation. One mark for a weak answer, two marks for an elaborated answer.
If the conclusions do not relate to an observation from the Learning Approach and does not tie in with the aim/hypothesis stated above
then 0 marks.

If the aim/hypothesis above is incorrect i.e not an observation then
TE, and max one mark as long as the conclusions relate to that
aim/hypothesis. If the aim/hypothesis above is incorrect/blank and the conclusions clearly relate to a practical observation in the Learning Approach and not the incorrect aim/hypothesis then max two marks.
0 marks
Either no answer or a muddled answer where the examiner cannot tell
what was concluded. Or no answer at all. See TE
1 mark
The examiner is given a brief idea of the conclusion/s with a reference
to what was found. May be just results. See TE.
The candidate clearly states what was concluded from the observation, may relate conclusion to a theory or the results but is not just results. See TE.
Look for other reasonable marking points.

Number
17(c)
4 marks for an answer that evaluates their observation. 1 mark per 0 marks for generic answers not related to their observation.
If the answer does not relate to an observation from the learning
approach and does not tie in with the aim/hypothesis above then 0
marks.
TE
If the aim/hypothesis is incorrect and the evaluation clearly relates
to the aim/hypothesis max 2 marks.
If the aim/hypothesis is incorrect/blank and the evaluation clearly
relates to a learning observation/ the correct conclusions then max 4
marks.

Answers may refer to the type of sample used, the number of participants, inter-rater reliability, controls, how representative the sample was amongst other points. • We had inter-rater reliability as three of us observed the same participants and found the same results/eq; • We all used the same coding description which increased • Our sample was taken from people on one high street/at one point of time so may not be generalisable/eq; • We had a small sample of 10 so this may cause problems with • It was ecologically valid as we observed real people driving as • It was a valid measurement of children playing as we used toys • It was ethical as we did get consent from the parents of the children we observed(or reverse argument e.g. driving observation)/eq; • It didn’t matter that we didn’t gain consent as we were observing people in the canteen where they expect to be seen • How I define behaviour may be different to how others define behaviours making it subjective (1st mark) e.g. what I see as a moody male may not be some one else’s idea of a moody male (2nd mark)/eq;
Look for other reasonable marking points.
Section C
Question

General Instructions
Marking points are indicative, not comprehensive and other points should
be credited. In each case consider ‘or words to that effect’. Each bullet
point is a marking point unless otherwise stated, and each point made by
the candidate must be clearly and effectively communicated.


Question
Number
18
In the Biological Approach you will have studied a key issue. Describe the key issue you student in from the Biological Approach and apply psychological concepts (theories and/or research) to explain the key issue. Clearly identify the key issue in your answer. for description of the key issue including id mark. Max 5 for applying concepts.
Credit points that could be either description or application to the 0 marks if the issue is from another approach or if it biological
theory/studies with no identifiable issue.
1 mark for ID that is clearly expressed as an issue.
Issues can include Is autism an extreme male brain condition? Are
transgender operations ethical? Are mental disorders biological in
nature? There are others.
E.g. Is autism an extreme male brain condition?/eq;
Description.
• Autism affects a child’s ability to interact and build relationships • Symptoms can include lower language abilities than others their • Almost ¾ of people with autism are male/eq; • It is thought that an autistic brain structure is an exaggeration • Male brains are heavier than female brains, and people with • In early development male brains grow faster than female brains and the brains of people with autism grow even faster/eq; • Males are better at spatial tasks than females, and people with autism tend to be even better at them showing it could be due to brain function/eq; • People with autism are slower than males who don’t have autism at developing language, with females developing • However hormones could play a part as it could be due to exposure to male hormones which explains why some females also have autism/eq; • It may also be genetic as about 60% of MZ twins will have it if
E.g. Are transgender operations ethical?/eq;
Description.
• A transgender operation involves changing the physical sex of a person, e.g. changing a male into a female physically/eq; • This can be done with adults because they feel they are in the • It can also be done on children if they appear to be of an • However in the case of children there are ethical issues as it is the parents not the child who decides what sex they become/eq; • Some argue it isn’t ethical to spend public money on what could be seen as a non essential operation/eq; • In the case of Money’s study at first it seemed that a male • However in David Reimer’s later testimony it was clear it didn’t • The case of Daphne Went would suggest it does work as she is biologically male but happy as a female/eq; • If gender is partly due to brain lateralisation then such operations won’t work as the child will still have the original sex brain/eq; • However social learning theorists would argue that with appropriate role models children can learn to be a specific • A study of 14 males who were raised as girls after surgery found that most of them still felt male showing it often doesn’t work/eq;
E.g. Do anti depressants work?/eq;
Description.

Millions of pounds are spent by the NHS on anti depressants They work by changing the neurotransmitters/increasing levels It is said that drugs are used because they are quicker/cheaper However some argue that psychotherapy would be more Studies have found they work in around 65% of cases compared to 30% improvement with a placebo/eq; • However in 30% of patients they have no effect/eq; They do have side effects that include dry mouth/eq; Prozac has been known to increase suicide/suicidal thoughts in Psychoanalysts would say that as the root cause of the problem has not been addressed then antidepressants just get rid of the symptoms/eq; • Antidepressants may not cure but the patient may need to take them in order to access other therapies/eq;
Look for other reasonable marking points.
Number
19
Compare the explanations of gender development given by the Biological Approach and the Learning Approach. Comparisons include considering similarities and/or differences. 1 mark per point, if 2 points explained within a comparison 2 marks. If it is just a description of 1 approach followed by a description of another approach max 2 marks.
• The biological approach says gender is determined at conception by our genes, however the learning approach says
our environment determines our gender/eq; (2 marks)
• The biological approach focuses on nature and the learning approach on nurture/eq; ( 1mark)
• Operant conditioning says we are rewarded for gender appropriate behaviour so repeat it, whilst the biological approach says our hormones help determine our behaviour/eq;
(2 marks)
• E.g. boys are rewarded for being aggressive or they are • SLT argues that we learn gender appropriate behaviour from same sex role models whilst biologists argue males and female
brains are different leading to sex differences/eq; (2 marks)
• Both have experimental evidence to support them, SLT through Bandura Ross & Ross, biological through brain lateralisation • According to the biological approach gender is determined at birth, it is determined in childhood according to the learning explanation/eq;
Look for other reasonable marking points.
Number
*20
In the Psychodynamic Approach you will have learned about one of the
Describe and evaluate one study from the list.
Clearly identify your chosen study.
Refer to levels at the end of the indicative content.
Appropriate answers might include the following descriptive points and
evaluation points, but this list isn’t exhaustive.

E.g. Axline(1964/1990) Case history/case analysis
AO1 points.
• Axline aimed to help Dibs who was having trouble • Dibs’ teachers asked Axline for help, as no one knew why he • She carried out several sessions of play therapy with him to try • This included using dolls, toy soldiers and a sand pit to act out • At one time he buried a toy soldier in the sand, calling it his • Dibs was able to work out his anger at his parents and became happier and communicative after the therapy. • A possible cause of his behaviour is that he had a strong superego, which could not be controlled by his ego. • In conclusion the play therapy allowed him to find a balance
AO2 points.
• This shows that play therapy can be useful in allowing children to express their unconscious and so can be used to help other children. • Axline had to offer some interpretation about what Dibs play • This was a study on one child so the results may not be true for • Because it was a unique case it would be hard to replicate the • It was ethical because Dibs was allowed to do what he wanted, he was never pushed into doing something. • E.g. when he wanted to play in Axline’s office he was allowed • It may not have been the play therapy that led to Dibs’ improvement, but just having one to one time with an adult • A meta analysis on play therapy found that it did lead to E.g. Bachrach et al (1991)
AO1 points.

• They wanted to see how effective psychoanalysis is using a • They looked at studies that had collected either quantitative or • The studies had to focus on illnesses that were suitable for • The patients also had to be suitable for undergoing • They included seven studies, which came to 1700 patients. • They found that between 60 & 90 % of patients improved with • They concluded that for most patients psychoanalysis is a
AO2 points.
• This study had a large sample of patients so the results can be • There wasn’t a control group to compare them to so we don’t know if they would have improved without psychoanalysis. • In some cases the analyst said whether the patient had improved, so the data may have been biased. • Other research has also found that psychoanalysis is effective • Eysenck would disagree with these findings as he found those having no treatment recovered better than those in psychoanalysis. • However, in a review of his study it was found that those in psychoanalysis improved a lot more than those in no treatment (83% vs. 30-43%). • Sandell found that three years after psychoanalysis fewer patients had recurring symptoms compared to psychotherapy.
E.g. Cramer (1997)

AO1 points.

• She wanted to see if young adults who committed to goals used defence mechanisms less than young people who were in crisis. • She used 91 participants all 23 years old, a mix of males and • They had to make judgements about statements so self-esteem and level of commitment could be measured. • They were also asked to judge some pictures to measure their • She found those who hadn’t yet reached crisis and those in • Those who had adopted their own goals were the least anxious, • Those who had their own goals and hadn’t had a crisis were least likely to use denial or projection. • She concluded that young people in a period of crisis are more likely to use defence mechanisms to help them cope. AO2 points.
• She had a large sample size of both males and females so it is • It may just be that generation of 23 year olds that use the defence mechanisms; it may not be true of past generations. • There may have been social desirability effects when answering the statements on self-esteem and levels of commitment. • Some do not think the TAT test is a valid measurement, so • This study can be applied to understanding young people and how they may use defence mechanisms to cope and therefore • The tests used are not tests you would come across normally,
Look for other reasonable marking points.
A01: Knowledge and understanding of science
A02: application of knowledge and understanding of science.
Candidates will produce brief answers, making simple statements
marks showing some relevance to the question. • Description includes brief elements of the study’s procedure and/ or • Little or no attempt at the analytical/evaluation demands of the The skills needed to produce effective writing will not normally be present. The writing may have some coherence and will be generally comprehensible, but lack both clarity and organisation. High incidence of syntactical and /or spelling errors. Description OR evaluation only OR limited attempt at each OR one is in Description will include basic procedure/case history and at least one of aim, results/case analysis, conclusion(s) • Evaluation includes appropriate strength(s)/ weakness(es). Candidates will produce statements with some development in the form of mostly accurate and relevant factual material. There are likely to be
passages which lack clarity and proper organisation. Frequent syntactical
and /or spelling errors are likely to be present. Candidate has attempted and answered both of the injunctions in the
marks question well.
• Good description, which must include breadth or depth (is likely to
include procedure/case history and at least two from aims, • AND evaluation includes appropriate, explained
The candidate will demonstrate most of the skills needed to produce effective extended writing but there will be lapses in organisation. Some syntactical and /or spelling errors are likely to be present. Candidate has attempted and answered both of the injunctions in the
marks question very well.
• Description will have breadth and depth (is likely to include aims, procedure/case history, results/case analysis, conclusion(s)) • Evaluation is thorough and broad (such as refers to both methodology and at least one other evaluative point.) The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place. Very few syntactical and /or spelling errors may be found. Very good organisation and planning. Given time constraints and limited number of marks, full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present. Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publication.orders@edexcel.com Order Code US032842 Summer 2012 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit our website www.edexcel.com Pearson Education Limited. Registered company number 872828 with its registered office at Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE

Source: http://www.smartpsych.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/June-2012-unit-2-mark-scheme.pdf

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Feedbacks: Amsterdam Fashion Institute, Netherlands Charumathy Murali Divyaa Ramanujam Centre at NIFT Department Semester Exchange/ Summer Programme/ Academic session Registration process at Facilities host school International linkages support from host institution Feedback: I find that most students are not aware of the existence of the exch

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