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Attractancy and Toxicity of an Attracticide for Indianmeal Moth,
Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
CHRISTIAN NANSEN1 AND THOMAS W. PHILLIPS2 ABSTRACT Plodia interpunctella (Hu¨bner) is a serious and widespread postharvest pest on cereal
products, dried fruits, candy, and pet food. Due to the strong positive anemotactic ßight response of P. interpunctella males to the main component of the female-produced pheromone [(Z,E)-9,12- tetradecadienyl acetate, herein referred to as ZETA], we evaluated the potential of an attracticide for this pest, in which ZETA as attractant was combined with permethrin as the killing agent. Two concentrations of ZETA [0.16 and 0.32% (wt:wt)] and Þve concentrations of permethrin [0, 3, 6, 12, and 18% (wt:wt)] were incorporated into Last Call gel (10 different permethrin:ZETA combinations).
All attracticide gels were evaluated in a toxicity test, in which either the tip of a leg or an antenna of a virgin P. interpunctella male was touched Ͻ3 s into a dot of attracticide gel. These males were subsequently transferred to jars with virgin females. The toxicity test showed that a brief and gentle contact of P. interpunctella males with attracticide gel containing 3Ð18% permethrin caused a signif- icant reduction in mating and killed males moths within 24 h. A wind tunnel test was conducted to evaluate the ßight responses of P. interpunctella males to the same 10 attracticide gels. Male moths displayed signiÞcantly higher levels of positive anemotactic ßight and more males made contact with the attracticide gel when the ZETA concentration was 0.16% compared with 0.32%. P. interpunctella males showed no signs of repellency to permethrin concentrations within a range of 0Ð18% in the attracticide gel. Three densities of P. interpunctella pairs were released into small warehouse rooms, and we found that the attracticide gel suppressed oviposition when the moth density was at a low level, but it was ineffective when the moth density exceeded one male-female pair per 11.3 m3.
KEY WORDS pheromone, stored-products, permethrin, attract-and-kill, oviposition
THE INDIANMEAL MOTH, Plodia interpunctella (Hu¨bner) Pheromone-baited sticky traps are widely used for (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a widespread and serious early detection and monitoring of stored-product pest on bulk-stored grain and seeds (Lecato 1976, moth populations in and around food facilities, and the Storey et al. 1983, Vick et al. 1986, Cuperus et al. 1990, main component of the P. interpunctella female-pro- Doud and Phillips 2000, Nansen et al. 2004), ßour, feed duced pheromone [(Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl ace- and other milled products (Lecato 1976), prototype tate (Z9,E12Ð14:Oac, herein referred to as ZETA)] military rations (Cline and Highland 1985), dried was identiÞed by Brady et al. (1971) and Kuwahara et fruits (Johnson et al. 1992), and nuts (Johnson et al.
al. (1971), and ZETA was among the Þrst pheromones 1992). Damage of food products is attributed to feed- to become commercially available (Phillips 1997).
ing by larvae, which are capable of penetrating a wide Later, three additional components of the P. inter- range of packing materials (Cline 1978). Infestations punctella female-produced pheromone were identi- by P. interpunctella can have a great economic impact Þed (Kuwahara and Casida 1973, Sower et al. 1974, due to direct product loss and indirectly to factors Soderstrom et al. 1980, Teal et al. 1995, Zhu et al. 1999) such as the cost of pest control and loss of sales from in the following relative ratio to 100 U of ZETA (Zhu consumer complaints (Phillips et al. 2000a). The fu- et al. 1999): 1) (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienal (Z9,E12Ð migant methyl bromide is widely used to control P. 14:Ald), 11 U; 2) (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienol (Z9,E12Ð interpunctella and other stored-product pests in food 14:OH), 18 U; and 3) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9Ð processing and warehousing facilities, and the antic- 14:Oac), 12 U. However, most commercial P. ipated U.S. ban in 2005 of this fumigant has motivated interpunctella lures only contain ZETA. The response research on alternative methods to control stored- of male moths to female-produced sex pheromone product insect pests (Fields and White 2002).
may also be used for suppression of these insect pests through either mating disruption or an attracticide 1 Department of Entomology, Leon Johnson Hall, Montana State (Phillips et al. 2000b). Mating disruption involves re- University, Bozeman, P.O. Box 173020, MO 59717 (e-mail: lease of sex pheromone in high amounts to confuse 2 Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, 127 Noble Re- male moths in their search for conspeciÞc females and search Center, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
thereby reduce the frequency of mating (Carde´ and 0022-0493/04/0703Ð0710$04.00/0 ᭧ 2004 Entomological Society of America Minks 1995). Mating disruption for stored-product ducted with virgin adults that were 1Ð2 d old; adults moths has been evaluated for Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Vick et al. 1978), Ephestia cautella Attracticide. A commercially developed attracti-
(Walker) (Mafra-Neto and Baker 1996, Shani and cide gel formulation known as Last Call was used and Clearwater 2001), and P. interpunctella (Ryne et al.
prepared for us as needed by the manufacturer (IPM 2001). An attracticide involves combination of an at- Technologies Inc., Portland, OR). We examined Þve tractant, typically a sex pheromone and/or a food concentrations of permethrin [0, 3, 6, 12, and 18% odor, and a killing agent (pathogen or pesticide), so (wt:wt)] and two concentrations of ZETA [0.16 and that the insects are attracted to a point source and 0.32% (wt:wt){rsqb] (total of 10 attracticide gels). In subsequently killed after contact with the attracticide all experiments, we used individual attracticide gel (Lanier 1990). Compared with traditional applications of pesticides, the main advantages of using an attrac- Toxicity Test. Individual P. interpunctella males
ticide are 1) insecticides are not broadcast over large were held with “feather weight” forceps (BioQuip, areas; 2) insecticides are not applied directly onto Rancho Dominguez, CA), and a single leg or antenna food materials; 3) nontarget insects (beneÞcials) are was dipped gently into a dot of attracticide for Ͻ3 s.
unlikely to be affected; and 4) although relatively high All 10 attracticide gels were examined, and 10 P. in- concentrations may be used in point sources, the total terpunctella males were tested individually for each amount of pesticide needed to treat a facility is con- attracticide gel. Immediately after the forced contact siderably smaller overall compared with a broadcast with the attracticide, each male was transferred to a treatment. EfÞcient insect control based on attracti- 250-ml glass jar containing 15 g of whole wheat kernels cides has been shown for a number of important moth and a virgin P. interpunctella female. After 24 h, the pests on forest trees [western spruce budworm, Cho- whole wheat kernels were sifted, the number of eggs ristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Sower and Shorb laid was counted, and the status of the male was eval- 1985)], Þeld crops [pink bollworm, Pectinophora gos- uated and assigned a score as follows: dead, 0; immo- sypiella (Saunders) (Haynes et al. 1986, Miller et al.
bile but alive, 1; and alive, 2. Virgin females lay eggs if 1990); Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis they are kept for 4Ð5 d (C.N., unpublished data), so a Boisduval (De Souza et al. 1992, Downham et al.
control group of 10 jars with wheat was set up in which 1995)], and fruits [navel orangeworm, Amyelois tran- a single virgin female was kept under the same con- sitella (Walker) (Phelan and Baker 1987), codling ditions for 24 h without introducing a P. interpunctella moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Charmillot and Hofer 1997), and light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvit- Wind Tunnel Experiment. The ßight response of P.
tana (Walker) (Brockerhoff and Suckling, 1999, Suck- interpunctella males to the attracticide was examined ling and Brockerhoff 1999)]. Trematerra and Capizzi in a wind tunnel (square cross section of 0.9 by 0.9 m, (1991) described the use of an attracticide to control 1.8 m in length), typical of those used for moth ßight the Mediterranean ßour moth, Ephestia kuehniella bioassays (Haynes and Baker, 1989). An aluminum mesh screen was mounted in front of the fan to keep In this study, we evaluated a commercially formu- insects inside the wind tunnel. Room air entered the lated attracticide for P. interpunctella in which ZETA wind tunnel through a screen Þlter impregnated with was used as the attractant and the synthetic pyrethroid activated carbon at the upwind end, and air was pulled permethrin was the killing agent. Experiments were through the tunnel and exhausted out of the room by designed to determine 1) to what extent subtle contact an electric fan mounted equidistant from the tunnel of P. interpunctella males with the attracticide would sides in a sheet-metal reduction plenum. The wind affect their survival and ability to mate; 2) the positive tunnel and air in the room housing it were kept at anemotactic ßight response of P. interpunctella males 18Ð22ЊC and 30Ð40% RH, respectively. The airßow to the attracticide in a wind tunnel; and 3) the po- rate inside the tunnel was Ϸ10 cm/s. A 10 by 10-cm tential of the attracticide to suppress P. interpunctella platform was placed 30 cm from the ßight tunnel ßoor populations under controlled, simulated warehouse in the upwind end and was used to hold a microscope conditions with different moth densities.
slide with a dot of attracticide gel, which was intro- duced into the wind tunnel 15 min before the ßight response of the Þrst P. interpunctella male was evalu- Materials and Methods
ated. Attracticide gel dots were replaced after every four to Þve trials. In the downwind end of the wind Insects. P. interpunctella adults from the laboratory
tunnel 30 cm from the ßoor in front of the fan, indi- culture at Oklahoma State University were reared in vidual P. interpunctella males were released from a a growth chamber at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h, cylindrical screened release cage (5 cm in diameter 28ЊC, and 60Ð70% RH on a standardized diet of corn and 4 cm in height), which was placed on a metal meal, chick laying mash, chick starter mash, and glyc- erol at a volumetric ratio of 4:2:2:1, respectively. The P. interpunctella males were tested individually, and light program of the growth chamber was set so that they were kept inside the release cage for precondi- 8 a.m. corresponded to the beginning of the scoto- tioning for 5 min before release. Experiments were phase. Pupae were sexed and carefully transferred to conducted under dim lighting during morning and individual 2-ml glass vials. All experiments were con- afternoon hours. The following behavioral responses, NANSEN AND PHILLIPS: ATTRACTICIDE FOR P. interpunctella similar to those used by Haynes et al. (1986), were were changed randomly among the storage sheds, and recorded: 1) wing fanning in the release cage during compressed air was used to clean the walls inside the preconditioning was scaled from 0 to 3 with 0 being no storage sheds between subsequent trials. Each trial fanning and three being intensive fanning; 2) take-off lasted 76 h and was repeated six times. Pairs of moths (yes/no); 3) time spent at release platform before were released in three densities (females:males): 1:1, take-off; 4) positive anemotactic ßight (yes/no); 5) landing on the platform holding the attracticide (yes/ Statistical Analysis. The PROC MIXED procedure
no); 6) time of ßight from release until landing on the with inbuilt contrasts in PC-SAS 8.0 (SAS Institute platform; 7) direct contact with the attracticide dot 1999) was used to examine the concentration effects (yes/no); and 8) the type of contact with the attrac- of ZETA and permethrin on 1) the ovipositional re- ticide was scaled from 0 to 3 of P. interpunctella males sponse of P. interpunctella females mated to males in that landed on the platform: 0, no touch; 1, gentle the toxicity test; 2) the behavioral ßight response by touch with either a single leg or with just one antenna; males in the wind tunnel experiment; and 3) the ovi- 2, touch with at least two body parts (e.g., two legs, one positional response (total number of eggs laid in the leg, and an antenna) or touch with a wing; and 3, when three food dishes per number of P. interpunctella fe- the male either crossed the attracticide gel dot by males) in the suppression study in the simulated ware- walking over it, got stuck in the gel, or in other ways houses. The PROC NPAR1WAY in SAS was used to had distinct or prolonged contact with the attracticide conduct a KruskalÐWallis test with Wilcoxon scores of gel. A trial was terminated within a maximum of 15 the concentration effects of ZETA and permethrin on min. We evaluated the ßight response of 7Ð10 P. in- 1) ranked male status after 24 h in the toxicity test; 2) terpunctella males for each attracticide gel on two ranked observations of fanning in the release cage, 3) separate days (a total of 15Ð20 males per attracticide binomial data on upwind ßight response and landing gel). A weak soap solution was used to clean the wind on platform containing the attracticide; and 4) ranked tunnel between bioassays with different attracticide observations of the male contact with dots of the Suppression Study. Three metal storage sheds
(Piedmont, Mauldin, SC), each of 11.3 m3 [2.3 m (width) by 3.0 m (length) by 1.7 m (height)], were used as simulated warehouses for evaluation of the attracticide gel. The efÞcacy of the attracticide gel was Toxicity Test. P. interpunctella females laid no or
determined by comparing oviposition by P. interpunc- very few eggs during 24 h when no male was offered tella in three storage sheds with the following simul- in control experiments (Fig. 1). In the PROC MIXED taneous treatments: 1) one freely exposed attracticide analysis of eggs laid, we found that forced male moth gel dot was applied to a paper card placed on the contact with permethrin had a signiÞcant effect on center of the south wall in the storage shed; 2) an total oviposition by females (F4,90 ϭ 4.89; P Ͻ 0.01), attracticide gel dot was similarly applied to the south whereas ZETA concentration had no signiÞcant effect wall in another storage shed, but a screen cage on the total oviposition (F1,90 ϭ 0.27; P ϭ 0.61). There (1.2-mm mesh opening) was mounted around the was no signiÞcant interaction effect between per- attracticide to allow the males only to come within a methrin concentration and ZETA concentration (F4,90 2-cm range of the gel dot; and 3) no gel dot (control).
ϭ 1.26; P ϭ 0.29). Because there was no signiÞcant Oviposition was assessed by counting the total number effect in toxicity caused by ZETA concentration, we of eggs laid by P. interpunctella females in three petri grouped the results from 0.16 and 0.32% ZETA and dishes in each storage shed (10 cm in diameter), each contrasted oviposition results across permethrin con- containing 10 g of whole wheat kernels treated with centrations (Fig. 1). There was no signiÞcant differ- walnut oil (10 ␮l/g wheat kernel). Nansen and Phillips ence in oviposition when males had been exposed to (2003) determined that whole wheat kernels treated attracticides containing 0 or 3% permethrin (F1,90 ϭ with this concentration of walnut oil stimulated ovi- 1.07; P ϭ 0.30), but total oviposition was signiÞcantly position by P. interpunctella females. The three food lower when attracticides contained 6% permethrin dishes were placed on a wooden shelf (60 by 120 cm) compared with 3% (F1,90 ϭ 6.31; P ϭ 0.01). In the suspended in the center of the storage shed 70 cm KruskalÐWallis test of the ranked male status after above the ground. The suppression studies were con- 24 h, we found that permethrin concentration in at- ducted during winter (December 2002ÐApril 2003), tracticides had a signiÞcant effect on males status after and an electric heater was placed underneath the 24 h (␹2 ϭ 64.04, df ϭ 4, P Ͻ 0.01), whereas ZETA wooden shelf in each of the three storage sheds to concentration (␹2 ϭ 0.22, df ϭ 1, P ϭ 0.64) did not maintain the temperature between 25 and 30ЊC and have signiÞcant inßuence on the male status after 24 h 30Ð40% RH (monitored with Hobo data logger in each (Fig. 2). Again, we grouped the results from 0.16 and storage shed). Based on the results from the toxicity 0.32% ZETA and made paired comparisons of the test and the wind tunnel experiment, we evaluated the malesÕ status at different permethrin concentrations.
attracticide gel containing the combination of 6% per- There was a signiÞcant difference in male status of methrin and 0.16% ZETA in the suppression study.
treatments with 0 and 3% permethrin (␹2 ϭ 6.84, df ϭ The suppression study was conducted in complete 1, P Ͻ 0.01), and 3 and 6% permethrin (␹2 ϭ 15.7, df ϭ darkness. For each replication, the three treatments 1, P Ͻ 0.01), but there was no signiÞcant difference in Fig. 1. Mean oviposition within 24 h of single P. interpunctella couples after the male had subtle contact with one of 10
attracticides containing 0.16 or 0.32% ZETA and 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18% permethrin. Results with different ZETA concentrations were grouped because only permethrin concentration had signiÞcant effect on oviposition (as indicated by different letters).
Oviposition by females not paired with a male was not included in the statistical analysis.
male status for treatments with attracticides contain- more P. interpunctella males performed upwind ßight ing 6, 12, or 18% permethrin (P Ͼ 0.05).
toward attracticide gels containing 0.16% ZETA (n ϭ Wind Tunnel Experiment. The ßight responses of
77, 0.83 Ϯ 0.04 [SE]) than to those containing 0.32% P. interpunctella males in the wind tunnel experiment (n ϭ 74, 0.63 Ϯ 0.06) (df ϭ 1, ␹2 ϭ 7.40, P Ͻ 0.01), but are summarized in Table 1. Most of the tested P. the proportion of males performing upwind ßight was interpunctella males performed considerable fanning not affected signiÞcantly by the permethrin concen- during the preconditioning, and neither permethrin tration (␹2 ϭ 5.52, df ϭ 4, P ϭ 0.24) (Table 1). The concentration (␹2 ϭ 8.26, df ϭ 4, P ϭ 0.22) nor ZETA proportion of upwind-ßying P. interpunctella males concentration (␹2 ϭ 0.13, df ϭ 1, P ϭ 0.72) had sig- landing on the platform with the attracticide was not niÞcant effect on the scoring of fanning. All P. inter- affected by the permethrin concentration (␹2 ϭ 6.38, punctella males left the release cage and neither per- df ϭ 4, P ϭ 0.17), but a signiÞcantly higher proportion methrin concentration (F4,141 ϭ 1.99; P ϭ 0.10) nor of P. interpunctella males landed on the platform when ZETA concentration (F1,141 ϭ 3.86; P ϭ 0.06) had the attracticide contained 0.16% ZETA (n ϭ 77, 0.71 Ϯ signiÞcantly affect on the time the male moths stayed 0.05) compared with 0.32% ZETA (n ϭ 74, 0.55 Ϯ 0.06) at the release platform before take-off. SigniÞcantly (␹2 ϭ 4.16, df ϭ 1, P ϭ 0.04) (Table 1). Flight time of Fig. 2. Status of individual P. interpunctella males 24 h after exposure to 0.16 or 0.32% ZETA and 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18%
permethrin. The status of the male was assessed according to the following scale: 0, dead; 1, immobile, and/or affected; and 2, alive and not affected (normal behavior). Results with different ZETA concentrations were grouped because only permethrin concentration had signiÞcant effect on male status (as indicated by different letters).
NANSEN AND PHILLIPS: ATTRACTICIDE FOR P. interpunctella Mean (SE) behavioral responses of P. interpunctella males in wind tunnel to attracticides with different pheromone and
permethrin concentrations
a Fanning during preconditioning was scored from 0 (no fanning) to 3 (intensive fanning).
b Time in seconds before the male left the release cage.
c Proportion of males performing upwind ßight.
d Proportion of ßying males that arrived at the platform holding the attracticide.
e Total ßight time in seconds.
f Score for touch with the attracticide: 0, no touch; 1, gentle touch with either a single leg or with just one antenna; 2, touch with at least two body parts (e.g., two legs, one leg and an antenna) or touch with a wing; and 3, substantial or prolonged contact with the gel.
those landing on the attracticide platform did not vary ments for moth densities of three and Þve mating signiÞcantly with neither permethrin concentration pairs per storage shed (P Ͼ 0.05).
(F4,85 ϭ 0.71; P ϭ 0.59) nor ZETA concentration (F1,85 ϭ 1.27; P ϭ 0.26). The scoring of the maleÕs contact with the attracticide revealed no signiÞcant effect of Discussion
permethrin concentration (F4,85 ϭ 0.79; P ϭ 0.53) but The toxicity tests in this study demonstrated that a was signiÞcantly higher when the attracticide con- brief and gentle contact with the attracticide contain- tained 0.16% ZETA (n ϭ 54, 2.07 Ϯ 0.13) compared ing at least 3% permethrin affects male survivorship with 0.32% ZETA (n ϭ 41, 1.71 Ϯ 0.13) (␹2 ϭ 5.07, df ϭ and immediate ability to perform courtship behavior and successful copulation. Nevertheless, some mating Suppression Study. Results from the toxicity test
may have occurred with intoxicated males before their revealed no signiÞcant difference in toxicity when deaths because more eggs were laid in these jars than permethrin concentration was at least 6%, and the in jars with unmated females. The glass jars used for wind tunnel experiment indicated stronger and more these experiments represent highly constrained envi- complete anemotactic ßight response to the attracti- ronments, in which the time needed to search for a cides containing 0.16% ZETA compared with those mating partner was reduced to a minimum due to the containing 0.32%. Consequently, we decided to use small search area. Hence, mating could theoretically the attracticide containing 6% permethrin and 0.16% occur within a few minutes after P. interpunctella ZETA for the suppression study in storage sheds.
males had been exposed to the attracticide. Other When all trials (three moth densities ϫ three treat- work has documented that P. gossypiella males can ments ϫ six replications) were included in the anal- recover and locate sex pheromone sources 2Ð4 d after ysis, there was no signiÞcant difference in mean num- a sublethal poisoning with an attracticide (Haynes et ber of oviposited eggs per P. interpunctella female for al. 1986), but we found that permethrin concentra- the three attracticide treatments (F tions Ն6% killed most of the P. interpunctella males 0.29), but the mean number of eggs oviposited per within a 24-h period. Our current study did not ex- female decreased signiÞcantly with increasing moth amine the longevity of permethrin activity after aging, and such work is needed before a recommendation on density (F2,49 ϭ 4.60; P ϭ 0.01). Due to the apparent a speciÞc permethrin concentration can be made for effect of moth density, we conducted a pairwise one- an attracticide that may be required to kill insects over way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine treat- several weeks in a practical application.
ment effect within each of the moth densities sep- The results here, and those from a similar study arately, and we found a signiÞcant effect of (Phillips 1994), indicate that relatively higher doses of attracticide treatment. At the lowest moth density, ZETA released from a point source elicit fewer con- the number of eggs laid per female was signiÞcantly tacts with the source by responding males compared lower for the trials with one exposed attracticide gel with lower doses. Responses of male Lepidoptera to dot compared with control trial (no attracticide) synthetic sex pheromones can be affected by, among (F11 ϭ 10.64; P Ͻ 0.01), whereas there was no sig- other variables, relative concentrations and composi- niÞcant difference between trials with one screened tion of the materials released from a point source attracticide gel dot and control (F11 ϭ 1.95; P Ͻ 0.19) (Carde´ and Baker 1984). Although up to four separate (Fig. 3). There was no signiÞcant difference in the sex pheromone components have been identiÞed number of eggs laid per female among the treat- from P. interpunctella females (Zhu et al. 1999), we Fig. 3. Three densities of P. interpunctella (females:males: 1:1, 3:3, and 5:5) were released and oviposition in food dishes
was assessed after 76 h in storage sheds with three different treatments: 1) one 0.015-g freely exposed gel dot of 6% permethrin and 0.16% ZETA was applied to the center of the south wall in the storage shed (dot exposed); 2) one screened gel dot of was applied to the center of the south wall in the storage shed (screened dot); and 3) control (no dot). Different letters among treatment indicate signiÞcant difference in number of eggs oviposited in food dishes at the lowest moth density.
used only the predominant compound, ZETA. P. in- moths at high densities with attracticide may have terpunctella males respond with a more complete se- only limited effect on the total population because quence of orientation and mating behaviors to blends remaining males tend to compensate by increasing of pheromone compounds compared with ZETA their number of matings (Brower 1975). We found alone (Vick et al. 1981, Zhu et al. 1999). Thus, it is that when the moth density is one moth pair per 11.3 possible that a higher efÞcacy of a P. interpunctella m3, signiÞcantly fewer eggs were laid in the simulated attracticide could be obtained in future work by using storage sheds with a freely exposed attracticide gel dot the four-component pheromone blend instead of compared with the oviposition in storage sheds with a ZETA alone. Furthermore, if ZETA only were to be caged dot of attracticide or control (untreated) stor- used in practice for an attracticide, the formulation age sheds. Because one attracticide gel dot per 11.3 m3 that would deliver an optimal release rate over a given deployed under a moth-proof screen cage did not time period for service would need to be determined.
affect oviposition compared with untreated metal We showed that the ßight response of P. interpunc- buildings, this study suggests that mating disruption tella males to the attracticide was unaffected by a was not occurring at this amount of the major pher- permethrin concentration up to18%. Based on recom- omone component we used in the formulation and this mendations from the manufacturer of the attracticide single dot density per 11.3 m3. Rather, the results gel (IPM Tehnologies Inc.), it was not recommend- able to increase the permethrin concentration beyond implicate the toxic effect of the permethrin acting 18% because this would substantially affect the phys- directly on males that contacted the attracticide as the ical characteristics (e.g., stickyness) of the gel. Haynes cause of reduced oviposition. The signiÞcant differ- et al. (1986) found no evidence of reduction in upwind ence in total oviposition at different moth pair den- ßight responses and source contact of P. gossypiella sities in the metal buildings was not easily interpreted, males when 1 and 10% of either cypermethrin, per- and it seems unlikely that three petri dishes of 10 g of methrin, or fenvalerate were added to an attracticide oil-treated wheat kernels could be a limiting factor.
pheromone source in attracticide studies, but Phelan Little is known about intraspeciÞc competition of ovi- and Baker (1987) found that a 1% concentration of positing P. interpunctella females, but Phillips and either cypermethrin or permethrin did reduce the Strand (1994) found that more oviposition by P. in- ßight responses of female Ameyelois transitella (Lep- terpunctella occurred on dishes of food contaminated idoptera: Pyralidae) in similar wind tunnel tests. Fairly with conspeciÞc larval secretions than on uncontam- small dots of attracticide were used in our current inated food. However, it is not known whether eggs study (15 mg), so it is possible that repellency to laid in wheat kernels are attractive to ovipositing P. permethrin would have been detected if larger dots interpunctella females as well.
This study with small storage sheds provides the Control tactics based on mass-killing of male insects baseline for similar controlled studies in larger struc- will generally be more effective at lower population tures with various moth densities and attracticide de- densities (Lanier 1990). Hence, suppression of male ployment schemes for further evaluation of the at- NANSEN AND PHILLIPS: ATTRACTICIDE FOR P. interpunctella tracticide as a suppression tool for P. interpunctella comparison with the malesÕ response to sex pheromone.
Haynes, K. F., W. G. Li, and T. C. Baker. 1986. Control of
pink bollworn moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae) with in- Acknowledgments
secticides and pheromones (attracticide): lethal and sub- lethal effects. J. Econ Entomol. 79: 1466Ð1471.
We thank Drs. James F. Campbell and Michael D. Toews Johnson, J. A., P. L. Wofford, and L. C. Whitehand. 1992.
for reviews of earlier drafts of this article. IPM Technologies, Effect of diet and temperature on development rates, Inc. was instrumental in formulating and providing the at- survival, and reproduction of the Indianmeal moth (Lep- tracticides. We appreciate the technical assistance of Stacy idoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 561Ð566.
Sanders in conducting the experiments. This research was Kuwahara, Y., and J. E. Casida. 1973. Quantitative analysis of
supported in part by a grant from the USDA, Cooperative and the sex pheromone of several phycitid moths by electron- State Research, Education and Extension Service in the Risk capture gas chromatography. Agric. Biol. Chem. 37: 681Ð Avoidance and Mitigation Program, agreement no.
00Ð51101Ð9674 and was approved for publication by the Kuwahara, Y., C. Kitamura, S. Takahashi, H. Hara, S. Ishii,
Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.
and H. Fukami. 1971. Sex pheromone of the Almond
moth and the Indian Meal moth: cis-9, trans-12-Tetrade- cadienyl Acetate. Science 171: 801Ð802.
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