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This manual was designed to guide you in the preparation of your thesis or dissertation at Tennessee Technological University. It is adapted from the Tennessee Conference of GraduateSchools Guide to the Preparation of Theses and Dissertations [?] and the Tennessee Techno-logical University Thesis Manual [?]. Following the practice of many guides and manuals, it iswritten in the second person, addressed directly to the reader. You should understand, however,that the second person is generally not appropriate usage in a thesis or dissertation.
Appreciation is extended to the authors of the manual: Dr. Suellen Alfred, Dr. Frank Bulow, Dr. Helen Deese, Mrs. Sheila Kendrick, Dr. Ken Purdy, and Dean Rebecca Quattle-baum.
(Draft copy: normal title page suppressed) (Draft copy: normal copyright page suppressed) (Draft copy: normal approval page suppressed) (Draft copy: normal permission page suppressed) who have given me invaluable educational opportunities.
Appreciation is extended to the authors of the manual: Dr. Suellen Alfred, Dr. Frank Bulow, Dr.
Helen Deese, Mrs. Sheila Kendrick, Dr. Ken Purdy, and Dean Rebecca Quattlebaum.
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Purpose of the Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethical Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plagiarism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal and State Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typeface or Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. THESIS/DISSERTATION ELEMENTS AND STYLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyright Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approval Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Statement of Permission to Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dedication Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Tables/List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Symbols/List of Abbreviations/Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subdivisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centered head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Paragraph sidehead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Tables and Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placement within the body of the manuscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placement of tables and figures in the appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal tables and figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foldout Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Material in pockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typeface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continued tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typeface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continued figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. FORMATTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Typeface or Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Other Formatting Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Margin Settings and Justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pagination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper and Duplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Theses/Dissertations in the Form of Journal Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multipart Theses and Dissertations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5. TECHNICAL POINTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Taped Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. BRINGING IT TO FRUITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Draft Copy to Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Final Examination/Defense of Thesis/Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Committee Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graduate School Pre-check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graduate School Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing the Manuscript Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Submission to Graduate School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Official Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Copies and Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graduate School Final Check and Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commencement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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A.1 Lin Plate and Incremental Loading Method Deflections Along Free Edge in Inches . . .
A.2 Means and standard errors of depths occupied by threadfin shad, alewife, and walleye in Dale Hollow Reservoir, Tennessee. Mean depths that share the same letter are notsignificantly different (Tukey’s test; P > 0.05) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3 Meristic Characters used in Distinguishing Redeye Bass, Smallmouth Bass, and Meristic Hybrids from Roaring River, Tennessee, 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arrangement of Thesis/Dissertation Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Flowchart Summarizing Possible Steps to Completion and Acceptance of a The-sis/Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Australasian Association of Palaeontologists Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm This guide is designed to be a basic source of information for thesis/dissertation preparation.
It establishes the technical parameters within which you should work, such as quality of paper,number of copies to be submitted, margins, and the sequence of pages within the manuscript.
Since most of you will publish during and after your graduate education, this guide encouragesthe use of leading professional publications to help establish specific formatting convention. Youare encouraged to use publications within your field—journals and textbooks—to assist you inestablishing bibliographic form, use of number, and other conventions that are discipline oriented.
However, the application of this theory is not simple. You must understand the various elementsof a manuscript and general publication formatting requirements in academic publishing. Althoughknowledge and use of publication formatting is essential, the regulations established by this guidealways take precedence.
You should use style handbooks such as the most recent editions of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (English) [?], Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssocation (Education) [?], CBE Style Manual (Biology) [?], Form and Style (Arts & Sciences,Engineering, Education) [?], The Chicago Manual of Style [?], and Harbrace College Handbook [?]as resources for basic style and grammar. In contrast, you should never use previously acceptedtheses and dissertations as the final guide to style. Examples taken from other theses may be out ofcontext or may be incorrect. The existence of a particular style or usage in a previously acceptedthesis does not establish a precedent for its continuation.
By accepting your thesis or dissertation and awarding the degree, Tennessee Technological University places its academic reputation on the line. The content of your manuscript is carefullyevaluated by experts in your field. The format requirements presented in this guide are imposed toensure an appropriate academic appearance of your manuscript.
Since conferral of a graduate degree implies professional integrity and knowledge of scholarly methods, there are three areas in which you as a graduate student should be particularly cautious: • the proper use of copyrighted material • the proper reporting of work where research compliance is required Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary [?] defines plagiarism as “steal[ing] and pass[ing] off ideas or words of another as one’s own” and “the use of a created production without creditingthe source.” “You must acknowledge all material quoted, paraphrased, or summarized from anypublished or unpublished work. Failing to cite a source, deliberately or accidentally, is plagiarism”[?, 424]. If you use the exact words of your source, they must be enclosed in quotation marks andthe source cited; if you do not use the exact words but paraphrase or summarize the source, it stillmust be cited. When involved in collaborative research, you should exercise extreme caution to Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm avoid questions of plagiarism. If in doubt, check with your major professor and the Graduate Schoolabout the project. Plagiarism will be investigated when suspected and prosecuted if established.
If you use copyrighted material in a limited way, it is usually unnecessary to seek permission to quote. If, however, you use material from a copyrighted work to the extent that the rights of thecopyright owner might be violated, you must obtain permission of the owner. In determining theextent of a written work that may be quoted without permission, you should consider the proportionof the material to be quoted in relation to the substance of the entire work. According to The ChicagoManual of Style [?], “A few lines from a sonnet, for instance, form a greater proportion of the workthan do a few lines from a novel. Use of anything in its entirety is hardly ever acceptable” (p. 124).
In no case should you copy a standardized test of similar material and include it in a thesis/disser-tation without written permission. According to Circular 21 (Reproduction of Copyrighted Worksby Educators and Librarians, p. 11) [?], “. . . the following shall be prohibited: . . .
be no copying of or from works intended to be ‘consumable’ in the course of study or of teaching.
These include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and test booklets and answer sheets and likeconsumable material.” The publisher usually has the authority to grant permission to quote excerptsfrom the copyrighted work or can refer requests to the copyright owner or designated representative.
The copyright owner may charge for permission to quote. You should credit permissions with theacknowledgments, and the source should appear in the Bibliography1.
Compliance with federal and state regulations governing the use of human subjects, animal care, radiation, legend drugs, recombinant DNA, or the handling of hazardous materials/wastes inresearch is monitored by a number of regulatory agencies. Because of these regulations, researchcompliance is another area of importance to you as a graduate student and to the conduct of yourresearch. Tennessee Technological University requires you to verify that you have complied withthe appropriate approval procedure(s) prior to the initation of the thesis- or dissertation-relatedresearch, if approval is relevant to the research. If your research involves any of the areas mentionedabove, you should determine what compliance is required by the school (available in the Office ofResearch).
These terms apply to all the features available within a “type” family. For many printers, typeface includes bold, italic, and the various sizes of any named type (Helvetica, Times Roman,New York, Geneva, etc.).
In the discussion of formatting, text is used as a generic term to designate the main body of the thesis/dissertation and to distinguish this element from preliminary pages, references, tables,figures, and appendices.
1Some fields alternatively use Literature Cited, References, or Works Cited.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Sometimes called “front matter,” preliminary pages serve as a guide to the contents and nature of the manuscript [?]. The approval or acceptance sheets, as part of the preliminary pages,confirm acceptance by the committee members acting for the department, and the Dean of GraduateStudies, acting for the university or college.
A table consists of numbers, words, or both, and presents information that is separated into columns. Tabular information allows you, the author, to convey information to a reader in astructured format.
Any diagram, drawing, graph, chart, map, photograph, or material that does not fit into the restricted format for a table is a figure. Figures generally show relationships or illustrate informationrather than present precise data.
An appendix is generally a “catch-all” for supplementary material to the thesis/dissertation.
In some cases, tables and/or figures are placed in an appendix to avoid interrupting the text.
Figure 2.1 shows the sequence and numbering scheme of the various thesis/dissertation parts.
Samples of all preliminary pages can be found at the start of this document.
You must include an abstract with each copy of the thesis/dissertation submitted to the Graduate School. Although the content of the abstract is determined by you and your graduatecommittee, the following information is appropriate: 1. a short statement concerning the area of investigation 2. a brief discussion of the methods and procedures used in gathering the data There is no word limit on the abstract appearing in the thesis or dissertation but it must be confined to one page in the typestyle consistent with the text. All doctoral candidates must providethe Graduate School with an additional abstract that is limited to 350 words (approximately 35lines) to be sent to Dissertation Abstracts International.
You will assign the title page the Roman numeral “i,” although the number does not appear on the page. The date which appears shall be the month and year of commencement. Your namemust appear as you are registered at the University. The wording and format of the title page mustbe exactly as shown in Appendix A.
You will include a copyright page only if the manuscript is being formally copyrighted (Ap- pendix A). You will find additional information about copyrighting in Chapter 6.
Each of the copies of the thesis/dissertation submitted to the University must have an ap- proval sheet using the exact wording and format shown in the front matter of this manual. Thissheet must be on the same brand and weight of cotton paper and be in the same base typeface as theremainder of the thesis/dissertation. The name used on the approval sheets and title page must bethat under which you are registered at the University. Although the approval sheets may be copies,the committee signatures must be originals. Black ink is recommended for the original signatures.
The number of signature lines must equal the number of committee members. The major and degreeto be awarded must be exactly those to which you were admitted officially by the Graduate School.
Majors and degrees can be found in the University’s graduate catalog. Number the approval sheet.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Copyright PageApproval SheetStatement of Permission to Use (Master’stheses only)Dedication page AcknowledgmentsTable of ContentsList of Tables (if 2 or more)List of Figures (if 2 of more)List of Symbols and/or Abbreviations (ifneeded; may be included as an appendix)Body of thesis (divided into chapters or parts)Separation sheetBibliography Separation sheet (if an appendix or appendixesfollow)AppendixVitaParts in bold type are required; all others are optional.
Figure 2.1: Arrangement of Thesis/Dissertation Parts For Master’s theses, the Statement of Permission to Use allows the University Library to provide copies of a thesis for academic use without securing further permission from you. Unlikedissertations, theses are not microfilmed, so access to them is limited to that which can be providedby the Library. You must include with each of the copies of the thesis submitted to the Universitya Statement of Permission to Use on the same brand and weight of paper and in the same basetypestyle.
This statement is in addition to optional copyrighting of the thesis.
approval sheet and is assigned a page number.
If you wish to dedicate the manuscript, include the dedication statement at this point.
You should use the acknowledgments to thank those who have helped in the process of obtaining the graduate degree. Also, list permissions to quote copyrighted material here, as well asacknowledgments for grants and special funding.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm The Table of Contents may vary in style and amount of information included. However, you must include List of Figures, List of Tables, List of Symbols, chapter or part titles, the Bibliography,the Appendix(es), if any, and the Vita. The page numbers for the Bibliography and the Appendix(es)are the numbers assigned to the separation sheet preceding each of these items. All headings andsubheadings must be listed in the Table of Contents.
If there are two or more tables, you must include a List of Tables. Similarly if there are two or more figures, you must include a List of Figures. There must be separate lists for tables andfigures. Include in the appropriate list any tables or figures appearing in the appendix(es). Be surethat each title is different from the other titles, and that the wording of all titles entered in the listsis exactly as it appears on the table or figure. This includes the information up to the first terminalpunctuation. You do not include additional explanatory information in the list.
List of Symbols/List of Abbreviations/Nomenclature You should make the title of this section reflect its content. You may use this section to define specialized terms or symbols, or you may place such information in an appendix.
This manual has been written in the format described herein. You must divide the man- uscript into a logical scheme that you follow consistently throughout the work. Chapters are themost common major division; parts are also permissible. Examples of chapter and part headingsare shown in Appendix B. For a discussion of divisions into “parts,” see Chapter 4.
Number each chapter or part consecutively and begin on a new page. A division entitled INTRODUCTION may be the first numbered chapter or part. Chapter or part titles are primarydivisions of the entire manuscript and are not part of the subdivision scheme.
You may use either the format and order of subdivisions that are described in this manual or the numerical decimal system of identifying heading and subheading. The subdivisions within achapter or part do not begin on a new page unless the preceding page is filled. First and secondlevel subdivisions are always preceded by an extra blank line to indicate to the reader a major shiftin subject. Never have only one subdivision at any level.
If there is not room for the complete heading and at least two lines of text at the bottom of a page, begin the new subdivision on the next page. If a chapter containsonly one level of subdivision, use the centered head. Type the first letter of each word in caps, placeit in bold type (or underline if bold is not available), and center it four inches from the right edgeof the page. Place it two blank lines (line spacing = 3) below the preceding text and two blanklines above the text which follows. Double-space (line spacing = 2) in an inverted pyramid formata centered head that is longer than four inches. If a second level of subdivision immediatelyfollows the centered head, use only one blank line (line spacing = 2) between the twosubheadings.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm If a chapter makes use of two levels of subdivision, then a freestanding sidehead is the second subdivision. Position the freestanding sidehead flush with theleft margin (see Margin Settings and Justification), two blank lines below the preceding text (doublespace if preceded by a centered head) and two blank lines above the text that follows. Capitalizethe first letter of each major word. Place the sidehead in bold type; there is no end punctuation.
If the heading is longer than 2.5 inches, use a second line. Indent the second line two spaces anddouble space between the two lines.
A third subdivision is indicated by a paragraph sidehead which is subordinate to both the centered head and the freestanding sidehead. Place the paragraph sideheada single blank line below the preceding text. Indent it like a regular paragraph. Capitalize onlythe first letter of the first word. Place the heading in bold type, followed by a period, and in everyinstance begin the text on the same line.
You must give full credit for every quotation or paraphrase used. A carefully worded para- phrase is usually preferable to a long quotation. Paraphrases are not enclosed in quotation marks.
If you use a footnote to acknowledge a source, its’ superscript normally follows the final punctuationof the material cited; however, you should place the superscript at the end of a sentence if only thesentence is referenced.
Quotations are used when it is desirable to reproduce literary material in exact detail. Quo- tations which are not over three lines long are usually enclosed in quotation marks and are placewithin the text. When quotations are longer, they are usually set off from the test in a separateparagraph or paragraphs and single-spaced. Follow the guidelines of conventional practice in yourdiscipline.
Notes documenting the text and corresponding to a superscripted number in the text are called footnotes when they are printed at the bottom of the page [?]. This format is only usedoccasionally and has generally been replaced by references. References usually consist of informationin parenthesis or square brackets within the text. Two common methods of referencing are (1) touse author’s name and date of publication, as in (Smith, 1990), or (2) to assign numbers to thebibliographical entries and insert the corresponding number for the authors as they are cited in thetext, as in Smith [95]. The purpose of references is to guide the reader to the corresponding entryin the Bibliography, where complete information is available. Footnotes or reference notes collectedat the end of each chapter or part (end note) are not acceptable. In microfilm or other electronicformat, large numbers or pages are reproduced on a single sheet of film, making end notes difficultfor the reader to locate. You must determine the form, style, and contents of footnotes or referencenotes by what is generally accepted in your field of study.
Most of the popular word processing applications have a footnote feature that provides auto- matic formatting and placement of footnotes at the bottom of the page. For disciplines using thatconvention, the formatting provided by the software application would be acceptable.
Since tables and figures are separate entities, you must number them independently.
Each table or figure must have a unique title descriptive of its contents. This title appears at the Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm top of the table and at the bottom of the figure. Give figures containing parts a general title, afterwhich you may break the figure down into “A” and “B” parts. For multiple-part figures, you mayintegrate the title, with titles for each part as part of the general figure title, or composite, with noreference to the individual parts. No two figures may have exactly the same title. The formattingof the titles must be consistent for all tables and figures.
You may number tables and figures in one of several ways. Three of the most • to number consecutively throughout the manuscript, including the appendix(es), using either • to number consecutively within chapters, parts, or appendixes, with a prefix designating the chapter/part/appendix (e.g., 3-1, 3-2 . . . 4-1, 4-2, A-1, B-1) • to establish a consecutive numbering system for the body of the manuscript and a different one for the appendix(es) (e.g., 1, 2, 3 for text and A-1, A-2, A-3 for appendix) The style of numbering must be consistent.
Placement within the body of the manuscript.
immediately follow the page on which it is first mentioned (except as noted in the next paragraph),and you must refer to all tables and figures by number, not by expressions such as “the followingtable/figure.” When more than one table or figure is introduced on a page of text, each follows inthe order mentioned. You may find it convenient to assign tables and figures pages separate fromthe text to avoid problems in shifting during last-minute revisions. In degree of importance, tablesand figures are secondary to the text so that the text dictates where the tables or figures are placed.
You must fill all pages with text and in no case should a page be left significantly short because ofthe mention of a table or figure.
You may incorporate within the text a table or figure less than one-half page in length (approximately four inches), provided it meets the following conditions: • Is separated from the text by extra space (approximately one-half inch) • Is not continued onto a following page • Follows its specific mention in the text If tables and figures are integrated with text, you must place them so that they appear either at the top or the bottom of a page. A mention on the upper half of a page of text would mean thatthe bottom half of the page would be reserved for the table or figure, and a mention in the bottomhalf of the page would place the table or figure at the top of the next page. Always have a balanceof no less than one-half page of text and no more than one-half page of table or figure. If multipletables or figures are mentioned together on a page, you may place them on pages together, providedthere is approximately one-half inch between each. You need not designate as figures small diagramswithin the text, nor designate as formal tables compilations which are no more than a few lines inlength.
Placement of tables and figures in the appendix.
in an appendix, you will so state in a footnote in the body of the text attached to the first mentionof a table or figure; do not repeat this information thereafter. When only some of the tables andfigures are in an appendix, clearly indicate their location when the items are mentioned in the text(e.g., Table 1, Appendix A), unless the numbering scheme makes the location obvious (e.g., TableA-1).
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm To accommodate large tables or figures you must some- times place them in horizontal (landscape) orientation on the page. The margin at the binding edgemust still be 1.5 inches, and all other margins at least one inch. The margin at the top of the pageand the placement of the page number must be consistent with the rest of the thesis. Place the tableor figure and its caption so that they can be read when the thesis is turned 90 degrees clockwise.
If possible, reduce large tables and figures to fit an 8.5×11 inch page. If not, you may include in the thesis material on approved paper larger than 8.5×11 inches, providedthe page itself is 11 inches vertically and is folded properly. The fold on the right side must be atleast one-half inch from the edge of the paper. The second fold, on the left side, if needed, must beat least 1.5 inches from the binding edge of the paper. The finished page, folded, should measure8.5×11 inches. If the page is to be bound into the thesis or dissertation, the paper submitted to theGraduate School must be the same brand of 25 percent cotton bond1 as the rest of the manuscript.
If it is necessary to include a large map, drawing, floppy disk, videotape, or any other material which cannot be bound, you must itemize these materials in theTable of Contents and designate them as being “In Pocket.” Affix to the pocket material a labelincluding number, title, your name, and year of graduation. A pocket for the material will beattached to the inside back cover of the bound copies.
It is also permissible to include less bulky material such as a survey instrument or pamplets in a pocket attached to a sheet of approved paper with permanent cement. You must treat thismaterial as a figure, mention it in the text, and give it a number and caption. Observe caution inusing pockets since the material in them is easily lost.
For the table captions you must use the base typeface and size used for the manuscript. The size of the type within the table may differ, depending on the “fit” of the informa-tion within the margins.
Since tables consist of tabulated material or columns, the use of ruling or horizontal lines in tables helps the reader distinguish the various parts of the table. Verticallines are accepted but not required. One of the characteristics that identifies tabulated material asa table is the presence of at least the following three horizontal lines: • The table opening line, which appears after the table caption and before the columnar headings • The columnar heading closing line, which closes off the headings from the main body of the • The table closing line, signaling that the data are complete Anything appearing below the closing line is footnote material.
Tables must have a least two columns which carry headings at the top as brief indications of the material in the columns [?, 329]. The headings appearing between the table opening line andthe column heading closing line must apply to the entire column down to the table closing line. Itis never appropriate to change columnar headings on continued pages. One method of avoiding aproblem is to use subcolumnar heads, which are headings that appear below the column headingclosing line, cut across the columns of the table and apply to all the tabular matter lying below it[?, 330].
1See page 15 for specific paper requirements.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm You may continue tables on as many pages as necessary, provided the columnar headings within the columnar block remain the same. Repeat the columnar block for eachpage. Do not repeat the table caption, but indicate continuation pages with the designation: Table (Continued). You may reduce tables too large to fit within margins. See Chapter 6 for hints on Footnotes to tables consist of four different categories [?]: • Source notes. If you take the table or data within the table from another source,use the word Source(s):, followed by the full reference citation, regardless of the format of referencing usedin the main body of the text. This ensures that if that specific page is copied in the futureby an interested reader, all bibliographic information is contained within the page. Include allreferences in the Bibliography.
• General Notes. Introduce general notes, which may include remarks that refer to the table • Superscript notes. For notes to specific parts of the table use superscripts (letters for tables consisting of numbers; numerals for tables consisting of words; symbols if letters or numbersmight be mistaken for exponents) that are attached to the part of the table to which theyapply.
• Level of probability notes. For a table containing values for which levels of probability are given, use asterisks. Use a single asterisk for the lowest level of probability, two for the nexthigher, etc. [?].
Since figures are considered illustrations, regardless of the nature of their con- tent, any print that is part of the figure can be in any neat and legible typeface. You must use thesame base typeface and size for the figure caption and page number as in the rest of the manuscriptbecause this material is considered to be part of the typeset body of the manuscript (see Chapter6).
You may place explanatory material for figures within the figure, either above or below the caption, or continue it after the period following the caption. If a figure has a longcaption and/or legend which must be placed on a separate sheet because of the size of the figure,place this page immediately before the figure. The page number assigned to the caption page isconsidered to be the first page of the figure.
You may continue onto other pages a figure containing several related parts too large to be included on a single page. The first page contains the figure number andcomplete caption, and subsequent pages contain the remainder of the figure and the designation:Figure Footnotes to figures consist of two different categories [?]: • Source notes. If the figure or information within the figure is taken from another source, use the word Source(s):, followed by the full reference citation, regardless of the format forreferencing used in the main body of the text. This ensures that if that specific page is copied inthe future by an interested reader,all bibliographic information is contained within the page.
If you have made changes in a figure from another source, so indicate by using the phrase“Adapted from . . . .” • General notes. Introduce general notes, which may include remarks that refer to the figure Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm You must include all references in the Bibliography.
The most recent edition of The Chicago Manual of Style [?] is a good resource. Generally, it is expected that all equations will be typewritten or printed in the final copy. With some wordprocessing programs (e.g., Word, WordPerfect) you can create equations that contain any numberof special characters and symbols. When questions arise concerning the placement of equations,proper spacing, and indentations, feel free to consult with the thesis/dissertation consultant in theGraduate School. The following general rules apply in the use of equations: • Align on operational signs equations that have more than one line.
• Center equations between the left- and right-hand margins.
• Do not break at the end of a line a short equation in the text; rather you should “space out” the line so that the equation will begin on the next line; or you may center the equation on aline by itself.
• Set connecting words of explanation such as hence, therefore, and similarly at the left-hand margin either on the same line with the equation or on a separate line (if used with a numberedequations). Do not use commas following these words.
• Number displayed equations (those set on separate lines) consecutively throughout each chap- • Follow equations that end a sentence with a period, normally on the line of type which conludes the equation. For equations that have several horizontal lines, align the period with the equalsign. The use of the period should be regarded as an aid to clarity.
You must include a list of materials used in the preparation of the manuscript of the the- This may consist only of references cited in the text or it may include works consulted as well. The list is preceded by a numbered page with the title centered vertically andhorizontally (see Appendices H–K). The purpose of listing the citations is threefold: 1. to serve as an acknowledgement of sources 2. to give readers sufficient information to locate the volume 3. in the case of personal interviews or correspondence, to save readers the trouble of attempting If your appendix contains references, the appendix must precede the bibliography. Follow the format for the citations used in your field of study.
An appendix (appendixes or appendices), if included, is preceded by a numbered page with the designation centered vertically and horizontally between the margins. Place original data andsupplementary materials in the appendix. In some cases, all tables and figures are included in theappendix(es).
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Write the vita, which contains appropriate personal, academic, and professional information about you, in narrative form. Since copies of the manuscript will be available to the public, donot include private information. The vita is the last item in the manuscript and appears with nopreceding separation page.
The typeface or font you use affects the physical appearance of your manuscript more than any other single element. Because of computers and the availability of laser printers and high-qualitydot matrix printers, typewriters no longer represent the standard by which the physical appearanceof the manuscript is defined.
Although typewritten text is still acceptable, word processing is considered to be the latest technology.
If a typewriter or standard printer is used, use the basic typeface (e.g., Letter Gothic, Prestige, Courier) consistently throughout the thesis. The pitch used must be the pitch for which the typewas designed (i.e., Courier 10 must be set on 10 spaces to the inch and Prestige Elite must be set on12 spaces). You may insert symbols not available on the typewriter by using dry transfer letteringor a template, or by printing symbols onto drafting film applique from a printer.
Laser printers provide the opportunity to use different type sizes and special effects such as bold and italics. Although most laser printers also have some typewriter styles available as options,the sizes of the type on a laser printer are often measured in points rather than in characters perinch. Text is normally most readable in 12-point, so this size is highly recommended. You may useother sizes for emphasis.
You must consistently follow your styles or conventions used for special effects throughout the manuscript. If you decide to set single-spaced quotes in italics or in a smaller type than that usedfor the regular text, you must follow that convention for all single-spaced quotes. Other illustrationsof special effects may be found in journals or textbooks.
The typeface or font selected for text will be the base style or the “starting point” for all type selection [?] and will establish the framework for the entire manuscript. All the following itemsmust be in the family of type selected as the “base” style: Acceptable type quality for the final master copy is determined by the following factors: • Standard uppercase and lowercase letters • The presence of descenders (parts of letters that normally extend below the line, such as p, q, Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm The printers most commonly used to produce the final master copy are laser, 24-pin dot matrix, ink-jet, and daisy-wheel printers. You should confirm the acceptability of other printers withthe thesis/dissertation consultant in the Graduate School. Some general guidelines for producingacceptable-quality master copy are: • install new ribbon, toner cartridge, or ink cartridge • clean the printer head or daisy wheel • use plain white paper (not 25 percent cotton) Spacing has both aesthetic and utilitarian effects on the appearance of a page. Vertical spacing determines the number of typed lines that will fit on a page and can make a manuscriptappear either cluttered or uncluttered, depending on space left between lines. Horizontal spacing“tightens up the spaces between certain pairs of letters, such as WA” [?, 604], and makes the spacingof proportional fonts pleasing to the eye.
Most technical decisions about both vertical and horizontal spacing are determined by the software package. When you select a typeface and size, the default values for spacing are auto-matically set. Most word processing packages then allow you to set the line spacing, using thepredetermined line height as a basis. Single spacing leaves a small space between two lines of typeand double spacing leaves the equivalent of the height of a line between the two lines of type.
You must double space the general text. You may use single spacing to set off quoted material and for references and tables. In the event that an extra blank line is needed (e.g., between chapternumber and title), you should add an additional “enter,” doubling the white space. See Subdivisions,for specific spacing instructions for headings.
Make paragraph indentations uniform throughout the thesis/dissertation. Indent the para- Avoid single lines of a paragraph at the top and bottom of a page (widow and orphan lines).
If you must divide a paragraph at the bottom of a page, make at least two lines appear at thebottom and carry at least two lines to the top of the next page. If there is not room for a completeheading and at least two lines of text at the bottom of a page, begin the new subdivision on thenext page.
The left margin must be no less than 1.5 inches; the right, top, and bottom margins no less than 1 inch. All images, including the page number, must fit within these margins. These marginsdefine the minimum white space to be maintained on all sides.
A fully justified line of type, regardless of the number of words in it, is exactly the same length as all other lines [?]. This feature is an option in most word processing packages. Either fullyjustified or left-justified margins are acceptable. The use of justified margins must be consistentthroughout the manuscript.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm The Abstract is not assigned a page number. Use small Roman numerals to number all other pages preceding the text. Although the preliminary paging begins with the title page, nonumber appears on that page; therefore, the following page is page ii. Beginning with the first pageof text, number all pages consecutively throughout the manuscript, including the Bibliography,Appendix(es), and Vita, with Arabic numerals. Pagination using letter suffixes (i.e., 10a and 10b)is not allowed. Number the initials page of any major subdivision (e.g., the first page of a chapter,division pages) at the bottom, leaving a margin below the page number of 1 inch from the bottomedge and centered on 4 inches from the right edge of the page. Update: if you are havingdifficulty with the placement of the page numbers being in two different locations, youmay choose to place the page number at the bottom center on all pages. Place thenumbers of other pages in the upper right-hand corner, leaving a margin of one inch from the topedge and one inch from the right edge of the page, with the text beginning a double space below.
Make sure that numbers appear on separation sheets.
Print or type the master copy on plain white paper. Reproduce the two copies of the the- sis/dissertation submitted to the Graduate School on 25 percent cotton content, 20 pound weight,white paper. Use the same brand of paper throughout both copies and for the approval pages.
The guidelines given in the previous chapters are sufficient for most theses/dissertations; however, there are several circumstances that require additional guidance. This chapter addresses afew of the more specific questions that may exist in the preparation of your thesis/dissertation, suchas the use of papers that have been or will be submitted to journals, and the division of unusuallylong manuscripts.
Theses/Dissertations in the Form of Journal Articles A thesis or dissertation may include articles submitted or about to be submitted to profes- sional journals. However, some guidelines apply. You must integrate the individual papers into aunified presentation. This might be done through an introductory chapter containing, among otherthings, a detailed literature review of the type not presented in journal articles. Additionally, youmight use one or more connecting chapters to expand upon the methodology or the theoreticalimplications of the findings presented in the individual articles. You must adopt a uniform styleof headings, reference citations, and bibliographical format—in compliance with this guide—for thethesis/dissertation, even though you may have prepared the individual papers for submission todifferent journals. You may list each paper as an individual chapter within the thesis/dissertation,or you may treat each paper as a part and follow the multipart format discussed in the next section.
If you use chapter divisions, you will include only one Bibliography (including all references fromthe various articles) at the end of the text. Finally, you may add appendixes to present informationnot included in the chapters. Number pages consecutively throughout the manuscript.
With approval of the committee members, you may divide the thesis/dissertation into parts, rather than sections or chapters. The use of parts is an effective method of organization when youhave performed research in two or more areas not practical to be combined into a single presentationor when you wish to maintain consistent format for journal articles. You may treat each part asa separate unit, with its own chapters, figures, tables, Bibliography, and Appendix(es) (if needed).
You may combine the Bibliography and Appendix(ex) at the end, as in the case of theses/disserta-tions in the form of journal articles (see previous section). In all cases, you must include an abstractor foreword which provides an overview and summary of the project, and a single Table of Contents,List of Tables, and List of Figures. Use consecutive pagination throughout the manuscript, includingnumbering of the required separation sheets listing the part number and title placed before eachpart.
If a manuscript is more than 2.5 inches in thickness (approximately 500 sheets of 20 pound 25 percent cotton paper), you must divide it as equally as possible into two volumes not exceeding 2.5inches each. You must make the divisions between chapters or major divisions, such as Bibliographyor Appendixes. List the contents for the entire manuscript in the Table of Contents at the beginningof Volume 1. Pagination is continuous throughout both volumes. Just prior to Chapter 1, insert asheet with VOLUME 1 centered both horizontally and vertically between margins. Volume 2 openswith a title page followed by a sheet showing VOLUME 2. Do not assign a page number to either Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Computer use has enabled you to assume responsibility for all aspects of thesis/dissertation preparation, allowing you to function as author, editor, and publisher of your manuscript. Withthis freedom has come the full responsibility of ensuring that the content is accurate, grammar andmechanics are acceptable, and all elements of formatting are handled correctly. The purpose of thischapter is to provide some pointers on technical production and to address some common productionproblems.
The element that contributes most to the attractiveness of a manuscript is consistency. Con- sistency in formatting means that you establish and adhere to a series of conventions or protocolsregarding spacing, heading sequencing, and other aspects of appearance to guide readers throughthe manuscript visually, thus enabling them to concentrate on the content. Consistency in the-sis/dissertation production is especially critical, since it determines in part the committee reactionto content and, ultimately, acceptance of the manuscript by the Graduate School.
You should avoid wasting valuable time attempting to force the computer to solve a printing problem when quicker and easier solutions exist. If not everything to be included in a thesis ordissertation is on your disk, you must use alternative methods to transfer the image to a “workingcopy,” such as taping the material to the page. Examples include material from other sources,photographs, tables, or other material too large for a standard page. Below are guidelines to helpin taping material–an alternative method of dealing with noncomputerized material: • Prepare tape-up sheets for any material that must be repositioned or reduced. Tape-up sheets will have the page number, title, and source (if needed) printed in proper position in prepa-ration for the material to be taped into place. For pages that need only the number, you cancreate tape-up pages as part of the body of the manuscript. All software packages have ameans of terminating a page at a specific point and advancing to a new page. Repeating thiswill create an empty page, numbered in sequence with the rest of the manuscript.
• For reductions, note that the maximum size of the image area, including page number, is 6 by 9 inches. Black and white contrast must be sharp. Position of the image on the reduced pageis unimportant, because the image will be cut out and placed on the tape-up page.
• Trim away nonimage area so that the image can be taped into place on the tape-up sheet, using transparent (not cellophane) tape. Tape fully all four sides of the image to screen outshadow lines. This will become the master copy.
There are at least six methods for including photographs in your thesis or dissertation. Each methods differs in quality and cost, and each requires different handling.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm • With the high-quality reproduction capability of the newer copiers, some of which have an automatic screening mode for photographs, it is often possible to mount an original photographon a tape-up sheet and have it copied onto 25 percent cotton paper without any charge otherthan the normal copying fee.
• Individual photographic prints can be mounted in each copy using permanent photomount spray adhesive. If you select this option, prepare the tape-up sheets and one copy of thephotographs trimmed approximately 1/8 inch smaller than the other prints. Tape the trimmedphotographs on all four sides onto the tape-up sheet and insert the page into the master copy.
Each time you copy the master copy, the photographs are also copied. Cost depends on thenumber of negatives and copies purchased. Quality depends on the quality of the originalphotograph.
• Many students with darkroom access use full-page-size 8.5×11 inch photographic paper with an image area of 6×9 inches (standard margins). Double weight glossy paper is recommended forpreservation and crisp image. If you select this option, print the title and other information ona legend page, which precedes the actual photograph, and mount an address label on the backof the photograph, one inch down and one inch in from the right edge (with the photographfacing downward). Type the label as shown below. Give page numbers to both the legendpage and the photographic page; in the List of Figures, the number shown is that of the legendpage. There should be no printing on the front of the photograph. The cost of this processdepends on whether the darkroom work is done by you or by a professional agency. The papermay have to be ordered in advance (often 11×14 inch sheets are cut down to 8.5×11 inches).
The detail quality is excellent.
• Halftone prints are made of each photograph and mounted onto paste-up pages. The PMT (photo-mechanical transfer) process screens the halftone image and converts it into dots, whichcan then be copied. Generally a dot density of 85 lines per inch gives the best image on mostcopiers. The quality of reproduction is comparable to that of a newspaper and probablywould not be satisfactory for scientific applications. The cost is relatively low, since as manyphotographs as will fit on a sheet of PMT material can be made in one shot.
• Many students use scanners to reproduce photographs, making them part of the computer- contained manuscript. Essentially, the scanner performs the same function as the PMT processand converts the photograph to dots, which are printed as graphics. Fine detail may be lost,but the overall image is attractive and copies well.
• Offset printing is a final option. The process is done by full-service print shops and requires the processing of two negatives—one for the printed copy and one for the halftone photograph.
Done well, this process produces excellent quality in a form that will last as long as the paper onwhich it is printed. The expense, however, may limit its use in thesis/dissertation production.
At this point in the development of your thesis/dissertation you have prepared a draft which must now be brought to fruition. This chapter describes the possible steps for completion and finalacceptance of the final manuscript. These steps are summarized in Figure 6.1.
Before you submit a draft copy of your thesis/dissertation to your committee, it should be checked out by at least your major professor for content.
incorporated in the draft copy that you submit to your graduate advisory committee. Please notethat this review by your major professor is a crucial step, and it may need to berepeated several times.
When your major professor is satisfied with your draft copy, you must submit a copy to all members of your advisory committee for their review. At the same time you should set a date,time, and place that is convenient for all your committee members for the presentation and finalexamination/defense of your thesis/dissertation. This date should be no sooner than one week afteryou submit your draft copy to them.
Final Examination/Defense of Thesis/Dissertation The format of your presentation and final examination and/or defense of your thesis/dis- sertation (which in some departments requires more than one session) is set by the policy of yourdepartment or college. Although its length may vary with whether it is for a thesis or dissertation,there is typically a formal oral presentation of your research to your advisory committee and anyguests whom you or your committee members might have invited. A period for questions normallyfollows. The intention of this process is to verify your understanding of your contribution to thebody of knowledge in your research area and your general field of study.
Recommendations for changes and/or additions are a natural byproduct of this review of your thesis/dissertation by your entire committee and your defense of it. These should be criticallyreviewed with both your major professor and the individual committee members who made therecommendation, and incorporated as appropriate.
At this point your manuscript is ready for a pre-check by the Graduate School prior to its final approval by your advisory committee and submission to the printer for reproduction. Thispre-check will pick up any format problems that must be corrected before the thesis/dissertation isprinted. The Graduate School must receive, by the date published in the Bulletin, one preliminarycopy of the thesis/dissertation for pre-check. Failure to submit the preliminary copy by the deadlinewill result in your removal from the commencement list.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Figure 6.1: Sample Flowchart Summarizing Possible Steps to Completion and Acceptance of aThesis/Dissertation Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm You must now make the revisions recommended by the Graduate School. If there is any doubt about a revision, check with the Graduate School again. This is also the appropriate time totake a copy of your manuscript to each of your advisory committee members to obtain their finalapproval of your thesis/dissertation, as reflected by their signature on your Certificate of Approvalof Thesis/Dissertation.
Under no circumstances should you generate the two final copies from a printer.
You must photocopy them from the manuscript master onto 25 percent cotton content, 20 poundpaper. The surface of cotton paper is such that ink from nonimpact printers does not always adherepermanently. The general premise of most photocopying is a combination of heat and pressure whichproduces a stronger permanent bond of the ink or toner with the paper. Although some printersfunction in much the same way, neither the heat or pressure is sufficient to assure a permanent bondto 25 percent cotton paper. This is a potential problem of all nonimpact printers. The problem hasbeen noted on various brands of cotton paper and with a variety of printers. In some cases therehas been flaking on random pages or smearing of copy from pages rubbing against each other.
The printer quality should be sufficient to produce a smooth, high-contrast copy. The poor quality of low-density dot matrix print is not acceptable.
ou will find area copy shops that are familiar with the University’s requirements concerning paper and copy quality. The cost of having copies made by local shops is reasonable, and youwill save little money by buying your paper and doing your own copying. Professional shops areresponsible for equipment malfunctions and should maintain a supply of 25 percent cotton paper.
All brands of 20 pound, 25 percent cotton paper are acceptable, but all pages, including the approval sheets and any outsize pages (11×17 inches), must be on the same brand. If you are anout-of-town student, you may wish to investigate copy shops in your location for comparison withthose in this area. Often local shops will make arrangements to accept the master copy by mail,make the copies, and deliver them to the Graduate School for a fee.
The Graduate School must receive, by the date published in the Bulletin, two official copies of the thesis/dissertation, including the Certificate of Approval of Thesis/Dissertation with originalsignatures, on 20 pound 25 percent cotton paper in an 8.5×11 inch file folder. These two official copieswill be hard-bound and placed in the Tennessee Technological University Library under arrangementsmade by the Graduate School. Doctoral students must provide one additional copy for microfilmingby University Microfilms International of Ann Arbor, Michigan. This constitutes publication andmakes the dissertation available to the public. Your department may require additional copies ofyour thesis/dissertation.
Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm You are also responsible for the reproduction of all other copies of the thesis/dissertation.
Hard binding of these copies may be arranged through the Graduate School. Your major professorcan help determine who expects to receive copies and how they should be bound.
If the research work for your thesis or dissertation was supported in part by a contract or grant, you should check with your major advisor relative to any restrictions that might apply tocopyrighting the material. After consultation with the chairperson of your advisory committee,you should decide whether or not to copyright the thesis to discourage unauthorized copying. Ifyou decide to copyright, you must insert an extra page after the title page of each volume. Assignthis page the number ii, but do not type the number on the page. Type and center the followinginformation on the copyright page: Registration of your thesis/dissertation document with the U.S. Copyright Office is optional.
Once the copyright notice is placed in the document, it is fully protected by the Copyright Law;however, registration is a prerequisite to certain remedies for infringement.
In view of the University’s Policy on Patents and Copyrights, with regard to thesis/disserta- tion support, you should consult the chairperson of your advisory committee before the copyrightnotice is placed in the document. A copy of the University Policy is available in the Office ofResearch.
Graduate School Final Check and Acceptance After you have submitted the final copies to the Graduate School, that office will review your thesis/dissertation again for corrections made on any previous errors and will count the pages.
When this review has been successfully completed, your thesis/dissertation will be approved.
Commencement is a fitting culmination of your effort to obtain a graduate degree. Whatever the degree to be conferred, it marks an appropriate beginning.
Table A.1: Lin Plate and Incremental Loading Method Deflections Along Free Edge in Inches Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm Table A.2: Means and standard errors of depths occupied by threadfin shad, alewife, and walleyein Dale Hollow Reservoir, Tennessee. Mean depths that share the same letter are not significantlydifferent (Tukey’s test; P > 0.05) Draft (Jan R. Doe): June 1, 2008 at 6:19pm John W. Buck was born in Orlando, Florida, on July 21, 1961. He attended elementary schools in the Orange County School District and graduated from Apopka High School with honorsin June 1978. The following August he entered University of Florida and in August 1982 received thedegree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering. He entered Georgia Institute of Technologyin January 1983 and received a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering in August 1984.
He entered Tennessee Technological University in August 1985 and is a candidate for the Doctor ofPhilosophy Degree in Engineering.

Source: http://trac.cae.tntech.edu/ttuthesis/export/7/thesis.pdf

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D-vitamiinin annostus Valtaosa tilastoista osoittaa, että useimmilla vakavasti sairailla ih-misillä on D-vitamiinin puutos tai heillä on ollut se menneisyydessä. Monet tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet, että D-vitamiini voi suojata saira-uksilta tavallisesta flunssasta syöpään. Lasten sairaudet kuten autismi, astma ja nuoruuden diabetes ovatleimaa-antavia niinä vuosina, jolloin meitä

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