Branch information

Sites: Abandoned agricultural fields, farm field borders, utility rights-of-way, roadsides, canopy gaps, and bare ground created in forests or pine plantations following thinning or harvest. Can be found on almost any site or substrate. Soils: Located on any soil type, but primarily upland soils. Hydrology: Terrestrial. Vegetation: Canopy: By definition, these communities are early successional and therefore have no dominant, mature canopy species. In some areas with clay hardpan soils, occasional Quercus stellata (Post oak) or Q. marilandica (Blackjack oak) may be present but these do not form a dense canopy. Understory: This layer can contain a wide variety of young trees, shrubs, and vines. Typically 3-5 years post-abandonment or post-disturbance, pioneer woody species such as Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweet-gum), Ulmus alata (Winged elm), Juniperus virginiana (Eastern red cedar), Rhus spp. (Sumac), and Rubus spp. (Blackberry) may invade. These plants can grow in very close proximity to one another, forming nearly impenetrable thickets in some situations. Groundcover: Early successional groundcover species are generally herbaceous annuals and perennials that quickly occupy bare ground from wind-borne seed and seed that lie dormant in the soil. Common species include Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Ragweed), Eupatorium capillifolium (Dogfennel), and Andropogon virginicus (Bromsedge). Rare Plants: Rare plant species favoring open areas with high light requirements may be found in some early successional habitats, such as those associated with Xeric Hardpan Forest. These species include Helianthus schweinitzii (Schweinitz’s sunflower), Symphyotrichum georgianum (Georgia aster), and Echinacea laevigata (Smooth purple coneflower). Dynamics: Early successional plants and habitats do not persist unless a favorable bare ground environment is provided through periodic disturbances every few years. A disturbance that develops bare ground and open conditions exposed to sunlight, such as fire, logging, or disking, creates a situation where early successional plants thrive. These plant communities produce nutritious seed, forage, and cover that is valuable to wildlife. Numerous wildlife species benefit from periodic disturbances that create and maintain early successional communities in the landscape. Associations: Adjacent forested communities typically have a distinct boundary due to the closed canopy of the forest. These early successional species that need high-light conditions generally do not expand into neighboring communities unless they have an open canopy. On hardpan soils with significant canopy, may grade into or be considered Xeric Hardpan Forest. Comments: The open nature of these sites, coupled with their typical location on dry, upland soils makes them distinct from other natural communities. In addition, if these communities do not experience periodic disturbance, they will succeed into some type of forested community through time.


NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Tasmar 100 mg film-coated tablets ▼ 2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION Each film-coated tablet contains 100 mg tolcapone. Excipients: Each tablet contains 7.5 mg lactose. For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1 3. PHARMACEUTICAL Film-coated tablet. Pale to light yellow, hexagonal, biconvex, film-coated tablet. “TASMAR”

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